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Muslim Ummah : Its Role, Past, Present and Future, Challenges and Opportunities. Questions appeared in previous years. Q.No.2013.  write down in detail the problems of “ Ummah ” in the contemporary world. 2012- جدید تہذیب و تمدن کا نقطہ نظر بیان کرتے ہوۓ مسلم امہ پر اس کے اثرات بیان کیجیۓ

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questions appeared in previous years
Questions appeared in previous years
  • Q.No.2013. write down in detail the problems of “Ummah” in the contemporary world.
  • 2012-جدید تہذیب و تمدن کا نقطہ نظر بیان کرتے ہوۓ مسلم امہ پر اس کے اثرات بیان کیجیۓ
  • Q.7-2011-In the present period the Muslim Ummah is facing different problems and for the solution of these problem “ijtehad” is necessary, so point out such an institution that can offer solution of the new problems with the help of Ijtehad
  • Q.9-2011-In the present era, Muslim Ummah has all the resources, but it is the victim of disunity, while analysis the reasons of disunity, suggest measures to maintain unity amount the Muslim Ummah
out line
  • Concept of Ummah
  • The Past_Glorious
  • The Present_Turmoil
  • The Future_ ?????
  • Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah
  • Causes of debacle
  • Responsibilities
  • Suggestions
  • Problems in Implementation
  • Epilogue
  • The phrase Ummah in the Qur'an refers to all of the Islamic world unified.
  • The Quran says:

“You [Muslims] are the best nation brought out for Mankind, commanding what is righteous (Ma'ruf, lit. "recognized [as good]") and forbidding what is wrong (Munkar, lit. "unrecognized [as good]")…” [3:110].


“The Muslims, regardless of their origin, irrespective of their geographical boundaries and racial characteristics are one Ummah”

(The Convention of Madina)

pan islamism
  • Pan-Islamism is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state — often a Caliphate
  • Religious nationalism, Pan-Islamism differentiates itself from other pan-nationalistic ideologies
concepts shared by intellectuals
Concepts Shared by Intellectuals
  • AllamaIqbal:
    • All the Muslims beyond any difference of color, caste, nation, state, ideology at the basis of religion are called Muslim Ummah.
  • Syed Jamal-ud-din Afghani:
    • All the Muslim states constitute Ummah. He was preacher of Pa Islamism.
  • Shah WaliUllah:
    • Muslims belonging to Muslim states only constitute Muslim Ummah.
    • Muslims present in any part of the world are part of Muslim Ummah.
  • Muslim Ummah has Glorious History which Produced;
    • Great Generals,Reformers, Thinkers, Scientists, Scholars and Astronomers
  • Today Muslims face a Common Threat of their Survival
  • Rise and fall is a social phenomenon, may be Muslim Ummah is facing its logical correction
basis for unity
Basis for Unity
  • We are all Muslims, we believe in one God i.e. Almighty Allah, we believe in one Prophet i.e. Muhammad (SallallahoAlaihewaAal-e-heeWasallam) and we all have the book of Allah i.e. Qur'an.
early division
Early Division
  • This difference in approaches on purely a political issue divided the Muslims permanently.
  • However, there were no differences among Muslims regarding Islamic Jurisprudence and worshipping (Ibadaat).
  • If some differences occasionally appeared among them, they never considered it as a difference that could divide Muslims.
  • Development of Islamic Jurisprudence (The science of Fiqah), four AhleSunnat Imams of Islamic Jurisprudence, Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'e and Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal learnt Islamic Jurisprudence from Imams of Ahle Bait
  • Imam Abu Hanifa was a student of Imam Ja'ffar us Sadiq
  • The major division among Muslims in Jurisprudence occurred when the Science of Fiqah (Islamic Jurisprudence) became a formal subject, the Sunni Muslims were divided into four Madhahib (ways), HANAFI, MALKI, SHAFI'E AND HANBALI.
  • The local nationalism was never preferred over the worldwide Islamic brotherhood.
    • Imam Muslim, Imam Bukhari, Imam Trmidhi and many other Imams and scholars of Islam were non Arabs but no one felt that they were from n
  • Muslims were the leaders in setting up the standards for the rest of the world.
  • Muslims were educators, scientists, doctors, engineers, commanders, etc.
  • Muslims were the leaders and model for other communities and nations
the start of real disunity
The Start of Real Disunity
  • After almost 13 centuries of Muslim rule, the focus of Muslim Ummah changed.
  • What Qur'an describes the attributes of Muslims as,
    • "They (Muslims) are very kind among themselves but very hard on Kuffaar".
  • Muslims slowly adopted the opposite attributes.
    • They became very kind to KUFFAAR and very hard and cruel to
3 important areas hit by the west
3 important areas hit by the west
  • Touheed
    • Cant be changed
  • Risalat ,
    • West develop and support few Muslims who are willing to challenge the honour and authority of Muhammad (peace be upon him).
  • Holy Book,
    • we believe that Qur'an is the word of God and can not be changed.
    • West develop and support those Muslims scholars who will be able to provide "new" meanings to the Qur'anic verses and interpret them "differently"
00 100 ah
00-100 AH
  • Period of Nabuwat
  • Period of Khilafat
  • HazratUmerFarooq (R.A) Iran, Iraq, Palestine and Egypt were conquered.
  • HazratUsman (R.A) Afghanistan, Qabris, Tunis and Moroco were conquered.
  • Hazrat Ali (R.A)
    • Jang-e-Nehrwan with Kharji, Jang-e-Jaml with Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) and Jang-e-Safeen with AmeerMuawia.
  • During the period of H AmeerMuawia Muslims got military strength. After AmeerMuawia long chain of government is being followed.
  • Muawia---Yazid---Muawia II---Merwan---Abdul Malik---Waleed Bin Malik
  • In the period of Waleed Bin Malik great victories came in part of Muslims.
    • Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh
    • Qateebah Bin Muslim Conquered Turkistan
    • Tariq Bin Ziyad conquered Spain, Portugal
    • Musa Bin Naseer conquered Undlus, Africa
  • After this Islam emerged as power and penetrated in whole world quickly.
100 500 ah
100-500 AH
  • Period of Umer Bin Abdul Aziz
  • Hasham Bin Malik ruled over Central Asia, Roam
  • Periodof Khilafat-e-Bnu Abbas
    • Haroon-ur-Rasheed laid stress on education and he developed schools and colleges to spread education. Muslims got strength in education in his period.
three major powers
Three Major Powers
  • Umayyad
    • Lost control of the empire in 750, but set up control of Muslim lands in Spain
  • Abbasids
    • Took over the empire from the Umayyad Dynasty, moving the capital from Damascus to Baghdad
  • Fatimid
    • An off-shoot of the Abbasids, they controlled most of North Africa and Western Arabia
  • Bring the period 300-400AH Khilafat was divided.
  • Aal-e-boya Iran
  • Fatimi Egypt
  • Ghazni Alpatagin
  • Banu Idrees Africa
  • Umvi Undlus
  • From 400-500 AH Shia-Suni split happened.
500 1000 ah
500-1000 AH
  • 500-600 Crusades (Noor-ud-Din Zangi and Salah-u-Din Ayubi)
  • 600-700 was a period of Tatars attacks and falloff Baghdad 1258
  • First Qibla captured by Crusaders
  • 700-800 Ameer Taimoor-Mahood Garan accepted Islam. And havoc was turned
  • 800-900 height of Ottoman Empire
  • Rule of Banu Abbass ended in 923 AH
  • 900-1000 Saleem Usmani, Ottoman Empire
fall of roman empire
Fall of Roman Empire
  • The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.
  • In 204 Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
  • The Empire received a mortal blow in 1204 by the Fourth Crusade, when it was dissolved and divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople and re-establishment of the Empire in 1261
1000 1400 ah
1000-1400 AH
  • 1000-1100 period of fall
  • 1100-1200 wars with Russia, Astria, Attack of Abdalli,Durrani on India
  • 1200-1300 Egypt Vs Ottomans, rebellion in Bosnia, Napoleon’s attacks, Wahabiz at Hijaz
  • 1300-1400 fall of Khilafat
  • I-WW, II-WW
cause of glory
Cause of glory
  • Muslims enjoyed victories
  • They had strong military
  • They were at peak in education, justice and culture
  • They were one Ummah
  • They had strong economy and Jihad was basic tool of strong economy.
conflict ridden muslim world
Conflict Ridden Muslim World
  • The conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Algeria, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Bangladesh, Iraq,Lebyia, Palestine, Syria
  • Think of any !!!
political capital
Political Capital
  • Organization of Islamic Cooperation-OIC
  • ECO
  • Arab League
  • African Union
  • UNO 57 Members
  • No Veto
social capital
Social Capital
  • Geostrategic importance
  • Combine location of most Islamic states
  • Universal Religion
  • 99% literacy rate in CARs, 57 % in Pakistan,
  • Iran exhibit high scientific publication growth arte in 2009
  • From seven three great : Egyptian, Gandhara, Indus/Moenjodaro Civilizations are in Muslim Countries
economic capital
Economic Capital
  • Collective population of member states is 1.6 billion as 2009-10
  • Combined GDP of $ 13 Trillion
  • Turkey had highest GDP on 2010 among OIC members as $ 729 Billion
  • OPEP: Except Venezuela 34% oil contribution comes from Muslim world
  • In Euro Zone, 575 B$ contribution is of Arab world in insurance banking and stock exchange.
the status of democracy index sdi
The Status of Democracy Index (SDI)
  • Measures each country's progress toward democratic governance through multiple variables
    • Governance
    • Freedom
    • HDI
    • Religious liberty.
    • Economic Freedom
  • Only three of these countries—Mali, Guyana, and Suriname, together representing less than 1 percent of the Muslims present in the survey group—are considered full democracies.
  • The rest of the countries in the index are considered partial democracies or partial autocracies, with four countries—Chad, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Uzbekistan, together representing almost 20 percent of the population—being full autocracies
  • Democracy in the Middle East and North Africa is the exception rather than the rule
guns and butter
Guns and Butter
  • Countries must determine how much of their money to spend on guns—order and security—and butter, that is, spending that enhances social harmony and economic prosperity.
  • The Status of Democracy Index score serves to illustrate the guns versus butter dilemma.
  • The greater percentage of Muslims a country had relative to its overall population, the lower its SDI score
  • The higher a country's GDP per capita, the lower its SDI score
  • The greater percentage of a country's GDP that is devoted to military expenditures, the lower its SDI score
  • The greater a country's military expenditure percentage, the lower its SDI
challenges faced by muslim ummah
Challenges faced by Muslim Ummah
  • Illiteracy
  • Terrorism
  • Poverty-HDI
  • Autocracy-SDI
  • Far behind in Science

and Technology

  • No Veto Powers

Concentration of wealth

Redefining the role of women

Lack of Institutional Ijtehad

Occupied Lands

War ridden Economies

illiteracy rate and poor standards world bank 2008
Illiteracy rate and poor standards (World Bank, 2008)
  • Best: Jordan & Kuwait
  • Worst: Djibouti, Yemen, Iraq and Morocco
  • Study of Arab league:
    • 30% of Arab population are illiterate.
    • 0.3% of GDP of Arab States is devoted to scientific research.
    • $5-7 per capita is spent on R&D in Arab States.
    • $1000 per capita is spent on R&D in China.
    • 600 research centers in Arab world vs 1500 in France alone.
    • 30% of scientists in the US are from Arab countries
causes of debacles
Causes of Debacles:
  • Forgetting Shariah
  • Materialism
  • Internal conflicts-Division
    • Nationalism -Regionalism (Arab, Non Arab or Arab, African)
    • Sectarian
  • Internal and International conspiracies
  • Illiteracy, poverty and conservatism
  • Leaving Jihad and spirituality
  • Acting off beam philosophies including deen-eIlahi, Wahdat-ul-Wujood, Mootazilla
  • Aqeedat and Taqleed, Khangahi approach
  • Irrational customs-Innovations and Biddat
  • Traitors
    • 1757, Battle Palassi, NawabSiraj-ud-Dola
    • 1799, SarangaPatam, Tipu Sultan
    • 1857, Dehli, Bahadur Shah Zafar
    • 1739, Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk
      • Meer Jaffar was traitor of Tipu Sultan and Meer Sadiq was traitor of Sultan Nizam-ul-Mulk
responsibilities of ummah
Responsibilities of Ummah:
  • Understanding, implementation and preaching of shariah- Religious
  • Establishment of Khilafat/Shariah-Political
  • Jihad-Economic
  • Ijtehad-Educational
  • Attainment of Veto power by Muslim countries
  • Islamic banking system, which ensures a system of interest and exploitation free principles
  • Effective Political role of OIC
  • Collective media of all countries to protect Muslim world
  • Common currency
  • Less reliance on USD
  • Common trade market
  • Common court of justice
  • Institutional Ijtehad
  • Development of Science and Technology
problems in implementing solutions
Problems in implementing solutions
  • Linguistic issues
  • Inter and intra country Economic disparity
  • Leadership crises
    • Political, military and economic strengths are distributed. Iran is politically strong, Pakistan had influential military, and KSA is economically rich, Together Muslim world can bring revolution
  • Disparity between population and physical area
challenges faced by muslim ummah1
Challenges Faced by Muslim Ummah

Political Problems

  • Territorial Disputes
  • Ethnic Clashes
  • Dictatorships
  • Monarchies
  • Fragile Political Governments
challenges faced by muslim ummah2
Challenges Faced by Muslim Ummah

Economic Problems

  • Muslims Represents 1/5th of World’s Population, Possess 70% of World’s Energy Resources, 40% of available raw material
    • The Total GDP of Muslim Countries = 5% of World’s GDP
    • Entire GDP of OIC States = 4300 Billion US $ and Japan = 5500 Billion US $
challenges faced by muslim ummah3
Challenges Faced by Muslim Ummah

Social Problems

  • Nationalism and Sectarianism
  • Jihad and Terrorism
  • Absorption of Foreign Culture
  • Clash of Civilization
challenges faced by muslim ummah4
Challenges Faced by Muslim Ummah

Educational Decay

  • Lack of Creativity and Innovation
  • Failure to Promote Technical Education
  • Failure to Educate Women
  • According to the Question
  • Good Governance Models of
    • Pakistan-Army and Nuke
    • Turkey- Modernization
    • Iran-Oil and Political Will
    • KSA_ Religion and Economy
    • Malaysia-Development and Governance
reasons of optimism
Reasons of Optimism
  • Biology: The political role of death.
  • Geology: Recovering from the curse of oil.
  • Theology: Not all Islamists are Bin Laden.
  • Technology: free public sphere.
  • Ideology: The end of Sectarianism
how countries democratize
How Countries Democratize?
  • Mass-initiated (revolutionary transitions).
  • Elite- Led.
  • Occupation.
  • Naïve liberalization.
  • Negotiated Exit.

For democracy to consolidate, a strong commitment to democracy on the parts of elite and masses (i.e. political participation) should be present.

counter reading of center for the study of islam and democracy among others said s orientalism
Counter Reading of Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy among Others (Said's Orientalism)

“Democracy-challenging” aspects of Islam

  • Democracy as people-focused doctrine while tawheed (oneness of God) as piety-focused doctrine.
  • Beda’a (disguised innovation).
  • Ijma’a that delegitmizes dissent and opposition.
  • The unequal status of women and non-Muslims in Islam.
  • The link between mosque and monarch.

“Democracy-friendly” aspects of Islam

  • such as shura.
  • ijtihad.
  • racial equality.
  • Islam’s sensitivity to the needs of the poor and weak.
  • Respect for order.
  • Islam’s sense of justice.
countries included in the analysis
Countries included in the analysis:
  • Countries that has 480 or more respondents.
  • Including 4 countries where Muslims are minorities: USA, EU, and India.
  • Total of 33 countries.
  • 91 Iraqis residing in the Arab world are included.
ii insignificant variables
II. Insignificant Variables
  • Blaming the West for the continuation and spread for dictatorships in the Muslims world .
  • The attitudes toward political Islam measured by Muslims’ attitudes toward the concept of Islam as a religion and state were not found to be helpful in explaining the attitudes of Muslims toward democratic hardware at all.
concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks
  • Muslims and Arabs are too heterogeneous to be studied in a lump-sum way of thinking.
  • Not all secular Muslims are liberal and not all Islamists are anti-democracy.
  • Some do bark: some countries’ political cultures are compatible with democracy--- search elsewhere for why they do not democratize.
  • Some countries’ political cultures are clear obstacles to democratization.
islam expands cont d
Islam Expands (cont’d)
  • Reasons for success
    • Muhammad’s desire to spread Islam North
    • Disciplined and well commanded armies
    • Persecution suffered by people under Byzantine and Sassanid rule b/c they didn’t support state religion
    • Muslims allowed conquered peoples to follow their own religion, but not spread it, as long as they paid the tax
v muslim culture
V. Muslim Culture
  • Society
    • Rise of Muslim Cities
      • Many cultures combined
      • Attracted many people
      • Baghdad approaches 1 million people
    • 4 Social Classes:
      • Upper class—Muslim at birth
      • Second Class—converts to Islam
      • Third Class—”protected peoples” included Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians
      • Lowest Class—slaves (POWs; all non-Muslims)
empire builders in the middle east and south asia
Empire Builders in the Middle East and South Asia
  • The Ottomans
  • The Safavids
  • The Mughals
the ottoman empire turks move into byzantium
The Ottoman Empire: Turks Move into Byzantium
  • Anatolian Turks: ghazis, warriors for Islam
  • Formed military societies and invaded the territories of infidels, people who did not believe in Islam
  • Osman: successful ghazi, his followers were called Ottomans
  • Success and expansion until stopped by Timur the Lame
the ottoman empire powerful sultans spur dramatic expansion
The Ottoman Empire: Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
  • 4 powerful sultans led Ottoman Empire until 1566
  • 1453: took Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) under Mehmed the Conqueror
  • 1514: defeated the Safavid under Selim the Grim
    • Continued on to take Mecca, Medina and Cairo
the ottoman empire suleyman
The Ottoman Empire: Suleyman
  • Suleyman the Lawgiver and Suleyman the Magnificent
  • Continued to expand the empire into Central Europe, North Africa and Central Asia
  • Structured social organization: law code, simplified taxes and government
  • Tolerance of religious and cultural differences
mosque of suleyman
Mosque of Suleyman

Istanbul, Turkey

the ottoman empire the empire declines slowly
The Ottoman Empire: The Empire Declines Slowly
  • Pattern of gaining power and holding power
  • The practices of the sultans led to weak leaders and the decline of the empire
    • Suleyman killed his most capable son and sent another into exile
    • Selim II inherited the throne
building the safavid empire
Building the Safavid Empire
  • Major influences: Persians, Ottomans, Arabs
  • Located between the Ottoman Empire and the Mughal Empire
  • Strong military force
  • Leader Isma’il became a religious tyrant and controlled Persia, (now Iran) and took the ancient Persian title of shah (meaning king)
  • Defeated by Ottomans in 1514, set present day border between Iraq and Iran
the safavid empire golden age
The Safavid Empire Golden Age
  • Shah Abbas, also called Abbas the Great, helped create a Safavid culture that drew from the best of the Ottoman, Persian and Arab worlds
  • Reforms and respect for military and civilian life
  • Tolerance for other religions and cultures
    • Encouraged industry, trade and art exchanges with European nations
  • Built a beautiful new capital at Esfahan with influences from all over Europe and Asia