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Cities and Urban Land Use. Urban Geography. How cities function, their internal systems and structures, and the external influences on them. 2 Ways of studying Urban Geography

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Cities and urban land use

Cities and Urban Land Use

Urban geography
Urban Geography

  • How cities function, their internal systems and structures, and the external influences on them.

  • 2 Ways of studying Urban Geography

    • Systems of cities: how cities influence the landscape around them, how they connect to one another, and how they are distributed nationally and globally

    • Internal cities: internal workings of cities, analysis of patterns of land use, racial and ethnic segregation, architecture, intra-city transportation, cycles of construction and development

      • Uses census data, and narrative accounts

Urban areas
Urban Areas

  • What’s an “urban” area?

    • Nucleated-clear core area(s), people that live there have non-agricultural jobs

      • Central City

    • Usually surrounded by Suburbs-nucleated spaces that use much land for residences but are not self-sufficient

    • Modern cities and towns so close together they form an urbanized area that is continuously built up landscapes and buildings=Physical city

    • Metropolitan Area

Urban hierarchy
Urban Hierarchy

  • Clustered settlements range in size-arranged by complexity of their centralizing functions

    • Smallest to Largest

    • Hamlet-small cluster of farms, and basic services

    • Village-small cluster of homes, and more specialized services

    • Town-larger than village, has more specialized services (bank, schools, library) has a hinterland (area dependent on the town)

    • City-larger population, functional specialization, larger hinterlands, greater centrality, Central Business Districts (CBD)

    • Megalopolis-multiple cities that have grown together-

Social life of urban areas
Social Life of Urban Areas

  • Louis Wirth says 3 characteristics of cities that set it apart from rural areas

    • Large Size- too many acquaintances to keep track of everyone’s personal life

      • Many people but don’t know most very well

    • High Density-people have highly specialized jobs, each person in city serves specific purpose-people compete for space (high cost of living), greater differences in rich and poor

    • Social heterogeneity-lots of diversity, freedom and independence not available in rural ares

Origin and evolution of cities
Origin and Evolution of Cities

  • Ancient and Early River Civilizations: Formative Era

    • Nile, Mesopotamia, Indus River, China

    • As populations grew, the need for decision makers to distribute food came to be (urban elite)

    • Functions of Ancient Cities:

      • Centers of power-government headquarters

      • Religious centers-priests, temples, shrines

      • Economic centers-markets, merchants, traders

      • Educational centers-educators for the urban elite

Urbanization around mediterranean
Urbanization around Mediterranean

  • City-states-self-governing communities plus the surrounding countryside

    • Athens, Sparta, Thebes

    • Rome-becomes an urban empire connected by roadways and waterways

Urbanization in china
Urbanization in China

  • Han Dynasty (ruled during Roman Empire) will have largest city in world Chang’an and later Luoyang

    • Located on rivers and near Silk Road trade route

    • Connected by roads, rivers, canals

Medieval cities
Medieval cities

  • Roman empire falls and cities take a hit in Europe

    • Venice and Genoa (because of sea trade) remained strong

      • Churches were center of Medieval European cities

  • By 1000 AD the largest cities were in Asia

    • Baghdad, Constantinople (Istanbul), Kyoto, Chang’an, Hangchow.

    • Not until 1800 did Europe have the most populated city in the world-London

Pre industrial cities
Pre-industrial Cities

  • Pre-industrial cities were the centers for culture (because industry had not moved in yet!)

    • Primate cities-larger than other cities in the area and representing a national culture

      • Kyoto-primate city for old Japan, Paris, London

      • However! One major difference is that religious buildings dominated landscapes of cities in Middle East, Europe, the Americas but not Africa or East Asia

    • Trade routes and networks determined a cities success and growth-called mercantile city where trade was central to design

Industrial cities
Industrial Cities

  • Because of the Industrial Revolution-the manufacturing city emerged-where factories attracted laborers from all over boosting major population growth in urban areas

    • Transportation to and fro and within develops

    • Problems will grow quickly but so will solutions like government intervention and city planning and zoning

World cities and megacities
World Cities and Megacities

  • Manufacturing cities begin to decline as outsourcing and LDC’s are used for that type of labor

  • World Cities include:

    • Largest regional cities: New York, Tokyo, London

    • Second Tier cities: Chicago, Los Angeles, Brussels, Frankfurt, Paris, Zurich, Sao Paolo, Singapore,

    • Third Tier cities: Bangkok, Bombay, Hong Kong, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Johannesburg

Tiers of world cities
Tiers of World Cities

  • Based on centrality of these services-

    • Business-corporations, banks, insurance companies, stock exchanges, legal and accounting firms, airports, busy harbors, junction of rail and highway networks

    • Consumer-retail business, entertainment and cultural offerings (plays, concerts, restaurants, museums)

    • Public-government headquarters, ambassadors, lobbyists


  • Term created by UN in the 1970’s

  • 25 total megacities=population over 10 million

  • Some include:

    • Tokyo

    • Mexico City

    • Seoul

    • New York City

    • Sao Paulo

    • Mumbai

    • Delhi

    • Shanghai

    • Los Angeles

    • Osaka

Functions of cities
Functions of Cities

  • Transportation centers-where major routes converge (roads, railroads, sea traffic, air transport)

  • Special Function Cities-engaged in mining, manufacturing, or recreation

  • Provide goods and services for surrounding area from a central place

Economic base of cities
Economic Base of Cities

  • City workers provide services outside city- “export activities” money flows into city-basic sector of a cities economy.

  • Those who produce goods or services for residents of city-non-basic or service sector

  • Some geographers compare number of workers in service and basic sectors-called base ratio of a city

The changing city
The Changing City

  • Borchert’s 4 Stages in the Evolution of American cities:

  • 1. Sail-Wagon Epoch(1790-1830)-technologies determined job opportunities of people entering city

  • 2. Iron Horse Epoch (1830-1870)-railroad technology changed nature of trade and employment

  • 3. Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920)-steel industry transformed urban America and job opportunities of workers

  • 4. Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-1960)- internal combustion engine came to dominate lifestyles, employment, and economic base of cities

Models of urban systems
Models of Urban Systems

  • 2 theories of settlement geography-patterns of settlement on earth

    • Rank-Size Rule-true for urbanized cities in the US not in LDC’s or in regions with a dominate primate city-nth largest city will be 1/nth the size of the largest city-2nd largest city will be ½ the size of the first ranked city

    • .

Models of urban systems1
Models of Urban Systems

  • Central Place Theory-cities are centers for distribution of goods and services for non-urban populations

    • The landscape is divided into noncompeting market areas—complementary regions where each area and its merchants have a monopoly

    • Market areas form a series of hexagons, no area is un-served, no two centers

    • Central place is at the center of each hexagon, supplies all goods and services to that area

    • Market area is determined by the number of goods and services

    • Some hexagons have smaller ones within it, hierarchy of central places

Internal cities
Internal Cities

  • Analyze the internal land space of a city, varying uses

  • Use several factors to analyze

    • Accessiblity

    • High cost of accessible space

    • Transportation

    • Societal and cultural needs

Models of urban land use
Models of Urban Land Use

  • Concentric Zone Model-Cites grow outward from a central area (CBD) in a series of concentric rings

  • Sector Model-variant of concentric zone theory, cities develop in sectors not rings from a (CBD)

  • Multiple-Nuclei Model-a city grows from multiple nodes, not just from a (CBD)

Patterns of class age gender race and ethnicity
Patterns of class, age, gender, race, and ethnicity

  • Social area analysis-takes census data and overall picture of how various peoples are distributed within an area (city)

  • Most Urban Land Models support the idea that people prefer to live near others with similar characteristics

  • Social Class, Age and Marital Status, Gender (feminization of poverty), Race and Ethnicity clustered into (ghettos) from historical segregation patterns in US