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Wind Turbines Introduction

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  1. Wind TurbinesIntroduction

  2. Summary Slide • Historical Background • The advantages of wind power • Wind Turbine Capacity • Wind Turbine Size • Installed Capacity (MW) • Main Driver of Wind Power Development • Wind Power Economics • Environmental Issues • Stand Alone System • Grid Connected System • Wind Farms • Off Shore Wind Farm • Wind Turbine Components • Wind • Wind Turbines in Iran

  3. References • Wind Power in Power Systems Thomas Ackermann John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  4. Historical Background • First Wind Turbine in Afghanistan. 7th Century BC • Purpose: Pump Water or Grind Grain Windmill, Holland - The Netherlands windmill at Burnham Overy

  5. Historical Background • First Wind Turbine to generate Electricity, 1891 in France • Technology improved step by step from the 1970s • By the end of 1990s one of the most important sustainable energies

  6. The advantages of wind power • Wind energy is free • There are no hazardous emissions

  7. Wind Turbine Capacity

  8. Wind Turbine Size

  9. Wind Turbine Size • Small wind turbines, those rated below 100 kilowatts, are used to power individual homes, farms, ranches, small businesses, and for telecommunications. • Large or utility-scale wind turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to one or five megawatts. • Tens to hundreds of these turbines can be connected to the electricity grid to form a wind farm that generates enough electricity for an entire community.

  10. Installed Capacity (MW)

  11. Installed Capacity (MW) • By the end of 2003

  12. Installed Cap. Europe (MW)

  13. Inst. Cap. Asia & Pacific (MW)

  14. Inst. Cap. Middle East & Africa (MW)

  15. Main Driver of Wind Power Development • Fixed feed-in Tariffs: • (Power purchase price is fixed over at least 10 to 15 years) • Government subsidies • Green Pricing: • Customers agree to pay higher tariffs for “Green Electricity” • Utilities guarantee to produce the corresponding amount of electricity by using “Green Energy Sources”

  16. Wind Power Economics • The cost of manufacturing wind turbines over the last 10 years has declined 20% • technological innovations have brought the cost of wind power down from more than 30 cents per kilowatt-hour during the 1980s to less than 6 cents per kilowatt hour today • It is predicted that by 2020, the manufacturing cost will be reduced by 50%

  17. Environmental Issues • No hazardous emissions • In 1990 in California alone, wind power offset the emission of more than 2.5 billion pounds of carbon dioxide and 15 million pounds of other pollutants • ( the same amount of air quality provided by more than 150 million trees)

  18. Stand Alone System • For remote houses • For remote technical applications (telecommunications) • Few watts to 50 KW • For village electrification up to 300 KW, wind turbines are used in combination with diesel generator & sometimes a battery system.

  19. Stand Alone System • Wind/Diesel systems can best be utilized to reduce diesel oil consumption in the already existing power supply system

  20. Stand Alone System • Wind/diesel systems with battery back-up can best be utilized in the circumstances that the wind turbine system with battery bank to cover the main load, and the diesel generator as a back-up system to cover the peak loads or periods of low wind speed

  21. Pw+jQW Z=R+jX Grid U1 U2 Pl+jQl Grid Connected System • Changes in wind power production will cause changes in the current through impedance Z • Current change cause changes in U2

  22. Wind Farms • A cluster or group of wind turbines placed in a location is called wind farm • The picture shows the Avedøre Wind Farm, just 5 kilometres from the city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. The 12 Bonus 300 kW wind turbines, (and one 1,000 kW power company test wind turbine) are located next to a 250 MW coal-fired power plant

  23. Off Shore Wind Farm • Offshore wind energy is suitable for countries with high population density, and difficulties in finding suitable sites on land. • Construction costs are higher at sea, but energy production is also higher

  24. Off Shore Wind Farm • The largest wind farm in Denmark is the offshore wind farm of Horns Rev, which was completed in 2002. It is situated in the North Sea, 14-20 km off the coast of Jutland. With its 80 Vestas 2MW turbines, the wind farm has a total capacity of 160 MW

  25. Wind Turbine Components

  26. Wind Turbine Components

  27. Main Shaft

  28. Gear Box • The rotor turns with a speed of about 22 revolutions per minute. • The gear changes the speed to 1500 rpm.

  29. Small Shaft • connects the generator to the gearbox

  30. Mechanical Break • Used as an emergency brake

  31. Generator

  32. Controller

  33. Anemometer • measures the wind speed

  34. Wind Vane • .There is a small sensor at the foot of the wind vane that notifies the wind turbine controller of the wind direction

  35. Yaw Motor • . The yaw motor turns the nacelle so that the rotor faces the wind

  36. Yaw Bearing • The yaw motor has a small wheel that engages a huge wheel. The large wheel is called the yaw bearing.

  37. Yawing • The rotor should always be facing the wind in order to catch the wind properly

  38. Cooling System • To cool down the generator

  39. Blade • Large wind turbines have three rotor blades fixed to the main shaft

  40. Blade Concept • A wind turbine blade works similar to the wing of a glider

  41. Towers Lattice Tubular

  42. Towers • A tower of 60 meters weighs 80 tones

  43. Height of the Tower • Up in the sky it is a lot windier than down by the ground

  44. Wind Turbines in Iran • بر اساس مطالعات انجام شده ايران كشوري با باد متوسط است و توان بالقوه در ايران 6500 مگاوات ميباشد. • منابع توليد انرژي الكتريكي در قرن بيست و يكم دكتر سيد مسعود مقدس تفرشي دانشگاه صنعتي خواجه نصيرالدين طوسي

  45. منبع اصلی باد • منشا کلیه انرژی های تجدید پذیر (به غیر از جزر و مد و زمین گرمایی) حتی انرژی موجود در سوخت‌های فسیلی خورشید است. خورشید نزدیک به 174.423.000.000MWh انرژی را در هر ساعت تولید می‌کند.

  46. منبع اصلی باد • 1 الی 2 درصد از این انرژی تبدیل به انرژی باد می‌شود، که در حدود 50 تا 100 برابر بیشتر از انرژی تبدیل شده توسط کلیه گیاهان روی زمین است.

  47. عوامل ایجاد باد • بادهای جهانی: تفاوت دمایی و گرمایی باعث حرکت هوا و چرخش آن می‌شود. مناطق نزدیک به استوا (مدار صفر درجه) انرژی بیشتری را از خورشید دریافت کرده و نسبت به باقی کره زمین گرمتر می‌شوند. این هوای گرم‌تر به سمت مدارهای بالاتر و پایینتر حرکت می‌کند.