PROFILES - CPD 10-12 July 2011 Focus Group תמי לוי נחום
המורה כמנהיג המורה כלומד המורה כמורה המורה הרפלקטיבי התמקצעות מורים
For decades… Focus Group Has been used as a marketing decision-support tool
later… It started to be used in medicine and in education…
Focus Group in Ed What is it? Example Why Focus Group in CPD Programme?
Focus Group What is it? A unique methodology tool A type of group interview Krueger, 1988; Morgan, 1993; Krueger and Casey, 2000
Interviewing Individual interviews Group interviews • closed • semi-structured • in-depth A scale a set of individual interviews a focus group (a social event) Depends on the degree of dynamics between the participants Interviewer / moderator
Focus group involves an organized discussion with a selected group of individuals to gain information about their views and experiences as well as insights into experts’ shared understanding of the topic.
Focus Group How does it differ from… Any academic discussion in a… faculty members’ meeting - focused on a selected issue? The participants in a focus group are not the executives (but more like costumers)
Focus Group How does it differ from… Any “small talk” in your living room? • Focus Group is … • a planned session / designed discussion • it is a semi-structured debate with a goal! • it is documented for future analyzing
Focus Group Main components 4-10 participants a minimum of 2 hours session allowing pluralism of “opinions” moderator(instead of an interviewer)
Focus Group A good moderator . . . Shows flexibility Shows sensitivity Has a sense of humor Links ideas together Encourages participation from everyone The moderator has to guide, to support He allows people lots of opportunity to comment, to explain, to share experiences and attitudes as opposed to the structured and directive interview that is lead by the interviewer
Example A continuing focus group with experts in chemistry Teaching. The aim: Changing the curriculum! The participants: 10 experts in chemistry teaching The experts were not the executives! They were chemistry lead-teachers, curriculum developers, researchers in science teaching. Key-issues were raised and discussed Levy Nahum et al (2007).
…example 6 sessions, 4-hours each protocols from one-on-one interviews with senior chemists were discussed with these experts teachers Based on the participants’ opinions and insights a new approach was developed These teachers are “our costumers” – we listen and learn from their feedback Levy Nahum et al (2008).
Focus Group in CPD programme Why? How? When? To implement FG
Focus Group in PROFILES CPD programme Why? Because the teachers are our programme “consumers” A “bottom-up” strategy A forum for assessment / change A feedback from teachers’ experience An effective opportunity for reflection
Focus Group in PROFILES CPD programme How? forming a community of practice formulating relevant issues for discussions Moderator Focus on what? PARSEL units (IBSE, Relevancy, DM) Assessment aspects… More…..
Focus Group in PROFILES CPD programme When? …the participants are “ready” along the CPD programme depends on teachers needs
Interviewing a set of individual interviews advantages disadvantages Individual interviews Group interviews • advantages
Focus Group Characterization Insights not rules Social not individual Flexible not standardized
Focus Group A good moderator tries not to . . . Order the course of discussion Lose control over the conversation Judge comments or be an “expert” Inform or educate during the group Lead a “question and answer” session