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  1. Introduction to Human Resource Management HR 251 Mohammed OwaisQureshiHashmi محمد عويس قرشي هاشمي

  2. الوضع الصامت

  3. Chapter Learning Objective Chapter Four- job analysis and job design 1. Define job analysis and job design. 2. Distinguish among a position, a job, and an occupation. 3. Describe several common uses of a job analysis.

  4. Chapter Learning Objective 4. Define job description and job specification 5. Identify four frequently used methods of job analysis.

  5. Chapter Learning Objective 6. Identify several problems frequently associated with job analysis. 7. Define job scope and job depth and explain their relationship to job design.

  6. Chapter Learning Objective 8.Distinguish among the following types of alternative work schedules: flextime, telecommuting, job sharing, and condensed workweek. 9. Define the term contingent worker.

  7. Define Job analysis and Job designتصميمتحليل الوظائف The first step in the process(عملية) of acquiring(اكتساب) the organization’s human resources is to be specific(معين) , by known what kind of work(عمل) that needs(الاحتياجات) to be done(فعل) and how(كيف) that work should(وينبغي) be done. Job analysis and job design are the processes(العمليات) used to determine(تحديد) this.

  8. >Job title المسمى الوظيفي >Work performed العمل المنجز >Equipment used معدات >Education required تعليم >experience required تجربة >Physical, mental and visual effort البدني والجهد الذهني والبصري required. كيف HOW الذي WHO WHERE

  9. Define Job analysis and Job design Job analysis is the process(عملية) of determining(تحديد) and reporting(تقرير) pertinent(ذات الصلة) information relating(المتعلقة) to the nature(طبيعة) of a specific(معين) job. It is the determination(تقرير) of the tasks(المهام) that comprise(تتألف) the job and of the skills(المهارات), knowledge, abilities(قدرات), and responsibilities(المسؤوليات) required of the holder for successful job performance(أداء).

  10. Define Job analysis and Job design Job Design(عمل تصميم): is the process(عملية) of structuring(الهيكلة) work and designating(تعيين) the specific(معين) work activities(الأنشطة) of an individual(فرد) or group(مجموعة) of individuals to achieve(تحقيق) certain organizational objectives(هدف). Job design addresses the basic(الأساسية) question of how the job is to be performed(تنفيذ), who(الذي) is to perform it, and where it is to be performed.

  11. Basic Terminology(المصطلحات الأساسية) الجزئيMicro motionاقتراح: Simplest(أبسط) unit(وحدة) of work; involves very elementary movements, such as reaching, grasping, positing. Element(العنصر): Aggregation(تجميع) of two or more micro motion, an element is a complete entity, such as picking up or transporting an object. Task(مهمة): Consisting of one or more elements; task one of the distinct activities that constitute logical and necessary steps in the performance of work by an employee.

  12. Basic Terminology Duties: One or more tasks performed in carrying out a job responsibility(مسؤولية). Responsibilities(التزام): Obligations to perform certain task and assume certain duties. Position: Collection of task and responsibilities constituting the total work assignment of a single employee.

  13. Basic Terminology Job: Group of Position that are identical with respect to their major or significant tasks and responsibilities. • The different between a position and a job is that a job may be hold by more than one person, whereas a position cannot. Occupation(احتلال): A grouping of similar(مماثل) jobs or job classes.

  14. Micro motions Elements Tasks Responsibilities Duties Position s Jobs Occupations

  15. Several Common Uses of Job analysis There are Several(عدة) of most common uses(استخدم) of job analysis Including : Job definition(تعريف): A job analysis results in a description(وصف) of the duties(وصف) and responsibilities(المسؤوليات) of the job. Job redesign(إعادة تصميم): A job analysis often indicates(تشير) when a job needs to be redesigned.

  16. Several Common Uses of Job analysis Recruitment: تجنيد process of seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen. Selection & Placement(): process of choosing from those available the individuals who are most likely to perform successfully in a job. Orientation: Introduction of new employees to the organization, work unit and job.

  17. Several Common Uses of Job analysis Training: (تدري)Learning(تعلم) process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts, rules, or attitudes to increase employee performance. Career counseling: (الإرشاد الوظيفي)Managers and human resource specialists are in a much better position to counsel employee about their careers. Employee safety: Focusing precisely on how a job is done usually uncovers any unsafe procedures.

  18. Several Common Uses of Job analysis Performance appraisal: (تقييم الأداء)The objective of performance appraisal is to evaluate(تقييم) an individual employee’s performance on a job(وظيفة). Compensation: تعويضاتA proper(جيد) job analysis(تحليل) helps(مساعدة) ensure(ضمان) that employees receive(تلقى) fair(عادل) compensation(تعويضات) for their(من) jobs.

  19. Job Description & Job Specification Job Description (الوصف الوظيفي) Concentrates(تركز) on the job, it explains(يشرح) what the job is and what the duties(الواجبات), responsibilities(مسؤولية), and general(عام) working conditions(الشروط) are. Job Specification (مواصفات الوظيفة) Concentrates(تركز) on the characteristics(مميز) needed(الحاجة) to perform(نفذ) the job. It describes(يصف) the qualifications(المؤهل) the incumbent must possess(يجب أن تمتلك) to perform(نفذ) the job.

  20. What working conditionsالشروط responsibilitiesمسؤولية what the duties(الواجبات qualificationsالمؤهل

  21. Job Description & Job Specification Job Description Should Include(ينبغي أن تشمل) the following(ما يلي): • Date(تاريخ) written. • Job status(وظيفة وضع)(full-time or part time; salary or wage). • Position title(لقب). • Job summary(ملخص) ( a synopsis(موجز) of the job responsibilities(مسؤولية)). • Detailed(مفصل) list(قائمة) of duties(الواجبا) and responsibilities. • Supervision(إشراف) received(تلقت) (to whom jobholder reports).

  22. Job Description & Job Specification • Supervision exercised(تمارس الرقابة), if any(who reports to this employee). • Principal(رئيسي) contacts(اتصل) (in and outside the organization). • Related meeting to be position requirements. • Competency(الكفاءات) or Position requirements(مطلب). • Required education and experience(تجربة). • Career(مهنة) mobility(التنقل) (Position {s} for which jobholder may qualify next)

  23. Job Analysis Methods There are Four of the most frequently used methods(طرق) of Job analysis. 1) Observation(مراقبة) which include (Motion Study & Time Study) A) Motion Study (دراسة الحركة): Determining(تحديد) the motions(الاقتراحات) and movements(حركة) necessary for performing a task or job and then designing(تصميم) the most efficient methods for putting those motions and movements together(معا).

  24. Job Analysis Methods B) Time Study: job analysis methods(طرق) that determines(تحديد) the elements of work(عمل) required to perform the job, the order(النظام) in which those elements occur(تحدث), and the times(مرة) required to perform them effectively. 2) Interviews(مقابلة) The interview method requires that the person conducting(إجراء) the job analysis meet with and interview the job holder.

  25. Job Analysis Methods 3) Questionnaires(الاستبيان) Contain both Objective and open –ended questions 4) Functional(وظيفي) Job Analysis Use as Standardize(توحيد)statements(بيان) and terminology(مصطلحات) to describe the content of jobs.

  26. Potential Problems with Job Analysis • Top management(الإدارة العليا) support(دعم) is missing(مفقود). • Only a single means and source(مصدر) are used for gathering(جمع) data(البيانات). • the supervisor(مشرف) and the jobholder do not participate(المشاركة) in the design(تصميم) of the job analysis procedure.

  27. Potential Problems with Job Analysis • No training(تدريب) or motivation(حافز) exists for jobholders. • Employees are not(ليس) allowed(سمح) sufficient(كاف) time(مرة) to complete(كامل) the analysis. • Activities(الأنشطة) may be distorted(مشوه). • Participants(المشاركو) fail(فشل) to critique(نقد) the job.

  28. Job Scope And Job Depth Job scope and job depth are both dimensions of job design A) Job scope(مدى): refers to the number(عدد) and variety(تشكيلة) of tasks(مهمة) performed(تنفيذ) by the jobholder. B) Job depth(عمق): refers to the freedom(حرية) of jobholders to plan(خطة) and organize(تنظم) their own(الخاصة) work, work at their own pace, and move around and communicate as desired.

  29. Types Of Alternative work schedules Flextime(الوقت المرن): allows employees to choose(اختر), within certain limits, when they start and end their workday. Telecommuting: Is the practice of working at home or while traveling(سفر) and being able to interact with the office. البديلAlternative جدولSchedule

  30. Types Of Alternative work schedules Job sharing(مشاركة): Is the practice whereby two or more part-time Individuals perform a job that would normally be held by one full-time person. condensed (مكثف)work week(أسبوع): The number of hours(ساعة) worked per day(يوميا) is increased(زيادة) and the number of days(أيام) in the workweek is decreased(انخفضت).

  31. Types Of Alternative work schedules Contingent (الوحدات)worker(عامل): Including Employee who are A) Independent contractors(المقاولين) and on-call workers, who are called to work only when needed. B) Temporary(مؤقت) or short-term workers.

  32. Questions ….

  33. Reference : Byars, L. and Rue, L., “Human Resource Management”, 9th , McGraw Hill, (2008).