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Chapter 14. A Nation Divided. Lesson 1: North and South Grow Apart. Seek First to Understand. There were many differences between the North and South in the 1800s. Differences . Results: Sectionalism —loyalty to a section or part of the country rather than the whole country.

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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

A Nation Divided

Seek first to understand
Seek First to Understand

  • There were many differences between the North and South in the 1800s.



Sectionalism—loyalty to a section or part of the country rather than the whole country

Slavery north and south
Slavery-North and South

  • By 1850, most northern states had outlawed slavery.

  • In the south, slaves were used by plantation owners to harvest crops such as tobacco, cotton, and rice.

  • Northern workers were free and paid for their work. However, in the northern factories, many put in long hours, under difficult conditions, for low pay.


  • Was profitable for the southern economy

    • Brought in more than twice as much money as the cost of owning the slave

    • Cotton was usually grown on large plantations

    • Many lived on small farms as wellwhere the farmer often worked alongside the slaves

By 1860, there were almost 4,000,000 enslaved African AmericansFree and Enslaved African Americans 1820-1860

Free to vote
Free to Vote? Americans

  • Even free African Americans did not always have the same rights as whites

    • Even though some states no longer required white men to own land, they DID require black men to own land in order to vote.

David walker
David Walker Americans

  • Free African American

  • Abolitionist

  • Asked: “How would they like us to make slaves of …them?”

Slave owners defend slavery
Slave Owners Defend Slavery Americans

  • Pointed to evils of factories in the north, where people worked long hours, in bad surroundings, for little pay.

  • Slave owners argued that slaves were better off than northern factory workers.

Resistance Americans

  • Slaves resisted slavery in many ways:

    • Escapes

    • Refused to obey the owner

    • Worked less or at a slower pace

    • Pretended to be sick

    • Broke tools needed for work

    • Learning to readand write

No choices
No Choices Americans

  • Slaves had no choices:

    • Families were separated

    • Told when to work and when to stop

    • Could not leave without permission

    • Decided whether or not they could marry

    • Decided the age at which children began working

Slave codes
Slave Codes Americans

  • Laws were passed limiting the rights of slaves

    • Slave codes—laws to control behavior of slaves

      • Slaves could not hit a white person (even in self-defense)

      • Slaves were not allowed to own property

      • Few slaves were allowed to buy and sell goods

Nat turner s rebellion
Nat Turner’s Rebellion Americans

  • Led a rebellion against slavery

  • Killed about 60 whites

  • US and Virginia troops were called in to stop them

  • Soldiers killed more than 100 African Americans

  • Turner escaped but was later captured and hanged

Joseph cinque
Joseph Cinque Americans

  • Led a rebellion against slavery

  • Seized control of a ship called Amistad (a Spanish slave ship)

  • He told the Africans, “We may as well die trying to be free.”

  • The Africans told a Spanish sailor to take them back to Africa

  • He tricked the Africans and took them along the coast of the United States until the US Navy captured them.

  • The Africans were taken as prisoners.

  • At first, the US planned to return them to the Spanish.

  • Abolitionists printed articles in newspapers of their plan

  • Their case eventually went before the Supreme Court

Synergy Americans

Former president john quincy adams
Former President John Quincy Adams Americans

  • Presented the case in favor of the Africans

  • He argued that the Africans were not property. They were humans and should not be returned to Spain.

  • Supreme Court reached a decision

  • It agreed with Adams and set the Africans free, and all 35 survivors sailed back to Africa later that year.

Underground railroad
Underground Railroad Americans

  • Not a real railroad

  • Underground railroad—an organized, secret system set up to help enslaved people escape the South to freedom in the North or Canada.

  • Conductors—people who helped those escaping

  • Stations—the houses, barns, and other places where escaped slaves hid along their journey

Synergy Americans

Escape? Americans

  • They were guided by the North Star

  • On cloudy nights, they felt for moss on tree trunks, because moss tends to grow on the north side of trees.

  • All along the journey they faced the risk of capture, a severe beating, or death.

  • Between 40,000 and 100,000 slaves escaped using the Underground Railroad

Harriet tubman
Harriet Tubman Americans

  • Most famous “conductor”

  • She escaped slavery herself

  • Settled in Philadelphia

  • Before the Civil War, she returned 19 times!

  • She led more than 300 people (including her mother and father) to freedom

  • She said, “I never ran my train off track and I never lost a passenger.”

Levi coffin
Levi Coffin Americans

  • White teacher

  • “Conductor” on the Underground Railroad

  • Opened a school for slaves in North Carolina

  • Slave owners closed his school

  • He moved to Indiana and started “conducting”

Catherine coffin
Catherine Coffin Americans

  • Levi’s wife

  • Helped her husband “conduct”

  • Together they led more than 2,000 slaves to freedom

Free african americans
Free African Americans Americans

  • In 1860, 4.5 million Africans in US

  • 4.1 million in the South

Fear Americans

  • Although free, they feared losing their freedom. Any white person could accuse them of being a slave.

  • Without a certificate of freedom, African Americans in the South could be sent into slavery

  • Escaped slaves in the North could be kidnapped by slave catchers and returned to slavery in the South

  • Could not hold certain jobs

  • They were threatened by whites in the North and South over jobs

Hope Americans

  • Thousands found jobs

  • Thousands bought property

Free or slave state
Free or Slave State? Americans

  • Free state—slavery is not allowed

  • Slave State—slavery is allowed

  • In 1819, the US was made up of 11 free states and 11 slave states

  • This means the number of senators were balanced as well (each state has 2)

Think win win
Think Win-Win Americans

New state
New State Americans

  • In 1819 Missouri asked for statehood as a slave state

  • Northern states did not want to add a slave state

  • Southern states took the opposite position.

John c calhoun
John C. Calhoun Americans

  • From South Carolina

  • Leader of the southerners in the Senate

  • Believed in states’ rights (the idea that states have the right to make decisions about issues that concern them)

  • Believed slavery should be legal if a state wanted it to be

Henry clay
Henry Clay Americans

  • Senator from Kentucky

  • Known as the “Great Compromiser”

  • Urged a solution called the Missouri Compromise

Missouri compromise
Missouri Compromise Americans

  • Missouri was admitted as a slave state

  • Maine was admitted as a free state

  • Now there are 24 states (12 slave and 12 free)

  • It tried to settle issues of future states gaining statehood

    • It drew a line dividing north and south

    • Any state south of the line would be slave

    • Any state north of the line would be free

More states
More States Americans

  • It worked for a while

  • California wanted to be added as a free state

  • At the time, the numbers were balanced (15 free and 15 slave)

Henry clay again
Henry Clay (Again) Americans

  • Suggested a compromise—

    Compromise of 1850

    • California becomes a free state

    • North agrees to pass the Fugitive Slave Law (law that forced people to return escaped slaves to their owners even if they escaped to the north where slavery was illegal)

    • Also suggested a way to accept other new states in the land gained from Mexico—let the people there vote to decide

Daniel webster
Daniel Webster Americans

  • Senator from Massachusetts

  • Spoke in favor of the compromise

  • Opponent of slavery

  • Wanted to keep the country together

Stephen douglas
Stephen Douglas Americans

  • Senator from Illinois

  • Proposed that Nebraska be split into 2 territories (north—Nebraska Territory and south—Kansas Territory)

  • Both were north of the Missouri Compromise line, they both were to be free

South says no
South Says No Americans

  • Southern states wanted them both to be slave states

Kansas nebraska act
Kansas-Nebraska Act Americans

  • Stephen Douglas suggested a compromise

    • Let the people of each territory decide

    • Congress agreed and passed a law—Kansas-Nebraska Act

Bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas Americans

  • Instead of solving the problem, it created a new one

  • Because they were able to vote, many people who favored one side rushed to settle Kansas.

  • Many who voted were not living in Kansas. They had come from Missouri to vote for slavery.

  • Northerners claimed the vote was illegal

  • Violence broke out in many parts of Kansas

  • Kansas became known as “Bleeding Kansas”

Harriet beecher stowe
Harriet Beecher Stowe Americans

  • Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin which described the cruelties of slavery

  • Sold about 300,000 copies

  • Won many people over to the abolitionist cause

Dred scott
Dred Americans Scott

  • Enslaved African American from Missouri

  • His owner took him to Illinois (free state), Wisconsin (free territory), and back to Missouri (slave state)

  • When his owner died, Scott went to court claiming he was a free man because he had lived in a free state

  • His case reached the Supreme Court

  • Court ruled that he had no rights because African Americans were not citizens of the US

Frederick douglass
Frederick Douglass Americans

  • Former slave

  • Spoke publically of his experiences as a slave

  • Writer, editor, and leading abolitionist

John brown
John Brown Americans

  • Abolitionist

  • Led attacks on pro-slavery people in Kansas

  • Made plans to lead attacks on slave owners in Virginia

  • He needed weapons

  • Planned to steal them from army’s arsenal (place where weapons are stored) at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia

Raid on harper s ferry
Raid on Harper’s Ferry Americans

  • John Brown and 21 other men (black and white) set out to raid Harper’s Ferry

  • Federal and state soldiers stopped them, killing some of the raiders

  • Brown was taken prisoner, found guilty, and sentenced to death

  • He was hanged

Abraham lincoln
Abraham Lincoln Americans

  • Republican party—opposed slavery

  • Illinois chose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate for Senate

  • A lawyer from Illinois

  • Called “The Rail Splitter” because he split logs when he was young with an axe to make the rails of fences

Stephen douglas1
Stephen Douglas Americans

  • Democratic candidate

  • Called the “Little Giant” because although he was short, he was a giant when it came to making speeches that changed people’s ideas

  • Believed in states’ rights

Debates Americans

  • Lincoln and Douglas debated throughout Illinois about the spread of slavery

  • Both were excellent speakers

Winner Americans

  • Douglas won the election for Senate, but Lincoln became the leader of the Republican Party

  • Within 2 years he became the Republican candidate for President

Lincoln douglas again
Lincoln-Douglas (again) Americans

  • Democrats chose Douglas as their candidate for President

  • Republicans chose Lincoln as their candidate for President

  • Lincoln won with no southern electoral votes

    • Southerners feared he would end slavery

    • They also worried they would have no voice in government

    • They said if he won, they would secede from United States

Southern states secede
Southern States Secede Americans

  • Secede—break away

  • Many southerners believed that the south should secede from the Union

  • Almost 2 months after Lincoln was elected President in 1860, South Carolina decided to secede

More states1
More States Americans

  • In 1861, 6 more states seceded

    • Alabama

    • Florida

    • Mississippi

    • Georgia

    • Louisiana

    • Texas

A new country
A New Country? Americans

  • Representatives from the 7 states met in Montgomery, Alabama

  • They decided to form their own government called the Confederate States of America (or the Confederacy).

  • They adopted a constitution that supported states’ rights and slavery

President of the confederate states of america
President of the Confederate States of America Americans

  • President—Jefferson Davis

  • Former US senator from Mississippi

  • He was born in Kentucky in a log cabin(like Abraham Lincoln)

  • Grew up on a plantation

  • Later he developed his own plantation

President davis
President Davis Americans

  • He said the Confederacy should “look forward to success, to peace, an to prosperity.”

  • In a letter to his wife, he wrote that the Confederate states were “threatened by a powerful opposition.”

  • That threat came from the US and a newly elected President Abraham Lincoln.

Problems Americans

  • Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861.

  • The Confederate States had taken control of the forts and military property in the southern states.

2 countries
2 Countries Americans

  • Union—states which remained loyal to the United States

  • Confederacy—States which seceded from the Unites States

  • Border States—States located between the Union and the Confederacy which were unsure (Delaware, Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland)

Fort sumter
Fort Sumter Americans

  • In the south

  • Still under Union control

  • Jefferson Davis met with his advisers to discuss Ft. Sumter

  • He decided to send officers to ask for the surrender of the fort

Robert anderson
Robert Anderson Americans

  • Commanded Ft. Sumter

  • Agreed to surrender if the Confederacy would wait 3 days.

Pierre g t beauregard
Pierre G. T. Beauregard Americans

  • Confederate commander

  • Gave the order to fire on the fort if they did not surrender in 1 hour

  • They began firing on Ft. Sumter on April 12, 1861 at 4:30 AM

Battle of fort sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter Americans

  • The bombing continued into the next day (Saturday)

  • With little food and water, Anderson surrendered and left the fort on Sunday

After the battle
After the Battle Americans

  • Lincoln responded to the attack by asking Union states to supply 75,000 soldiers to put down the Confederate rebellion

  • His call for troops angered Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina

  • They seceded and joined the Confederacy

  • Union states—23

  • Confederate states—11

  • Border states—4

Border states
Border States Americans

  • Lincoln wanted to keep the border states in the Union even though they were slave states

  • In 1861 he continued to say his aim was to hold the states together, not to abolish slavery

Causes of the conflict
Causes of the Conflict Americans

  • To preserve (keep together) the Union

  • Supporters of the north believed they were fighting to end slavery

  • they also believed they were defending their homeland and their way of life

WAR! Americans

  • The Battle of Fort Sumter officially began the American Civil War

  • Civil war—awar between people of the same country

  • Some described the war as a rebellion and the Confederacy as rebels

  • To the south, this was the War for Southern Independence or the War of Northern Aggression

The war begins
The War Begins Americans

  • No matter what it was called, the war would be longer and bloodier than anyone would have guessed at this point.