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Chapter 22 - Communication. April 8, 2004. 22.5 – Semantic Interpretation. Uses First Order Logic as the representation language Compositional Semantics Instead of NP  Digit Digit NP([x, y])  Digit(x) Digit(y), x and y are associated semantics

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22 5 semantic interpretation
22.5 – Semantic Interpretation
  • Uses First Order Logic as the representation language
  • Compositional Semantics
    • Instead of NP  Digit Digit
    • NP([x, y])  Digit(x) Digit(y), x and y are associated semantics
    • another application of DCG; definite clause grammar
examples
Examples
  • Applied to arithmetic
    • Figure 22.14
    • Figure 22.15
  • Applied to English
    • Figure 22.16
    • Figure 22.17
augmentations
Augmentations
  • Time and tense
    • use event calculus
    • for example, Verb( λx λy e Î Loves(x,y) ^ After(Now, e)  loved
  • Quasi-Logical Form [a a Î Agents]
    • Somewhere between syntax and semantics
    • Can represent different possibilities succinctly
    • Figure 22.18
  • Pragmatics can resolve indexicals. “We are in CS 536 today”.
22 6 ambiguity and disambiguation
22.6 – Ambiguity and Disambiguation
  • “Portable toilet bombed; police have nothing to go on”
  • Lexical, e.g. “class”
  • Syntactic, e.g. “The man gave the gift with a smile”. “The man saw the boy with the smile”.
  • Semantic
slide6
Metonymy. One object stands for another. For example, “MSU said”.
    •  m, x, e [x = MSU ^ e Î Announce(m) ^ After(Now, e) ^ Metonymy(m) ]
  • Metaphor. Indirect comparison. For example, the notion that more is up.
disambiguation
Disambiguation
  • argmax intent Likelihood ( intent | words, situation)
  • Knowledge Sources
    • World Model
    • Mental Model
    • Language Model
    • Acoustic Model
22 7 discourse understanding
22.7 – Discourse Understanding
  • Reference resolution. Relies on syntax, semantics and pragmatics. For example, “he”.
  • Structure of coherent discourse.
    • Figure 22.21. Coherence Relations.
22 8 grammar induction
22.8 – Grammar Induction
  • SEQUITUR (1997)
    • No pair of adjacent symbols should appear more than once in the grammar
    • Every rule should be used at least twice
    • Figure 22.22