T.R. and Word Affairs • Becomes President in 1901 after McKinley assassination • Does not want Europe’s imperial powers controlling the world (Anti-European Imperialism) • Wanted strong U.S. influence in world affairs (Pro-U.S. Imperialism) • 1905: Helps negotiate a peace treaty to end a war between Russia and Japan (for which he won Nobel Peace Prize in 1906)
Panama: The King’s Crown • 1850 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. • 1901 Hay-Paunceforte Treaty. • Philippe Bunau-Varilla, agent provacateur. • Dr. Walter Reed. • Colonel W. Goethals. • 1903 Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.
Panama Canal T.R. and Panama Canal TR in Panama(Construction begins in 1904)
T.R. and the Panama Canal • P.C.: Cut sailing distance from NYC to SF from 13,000 to 5,200 miles • Decide: Panama (controlled by Columbia) or Nicaragua route? • French company failed to complete canal and sold rights to U.S. • U.S. Columbia negotiations failed • U.S. present when Panamanian rebels declared independence in 1903 • U.S. makes a deal with Panama to build and control the canal
The Panama Canal Info • Built 1904 – 1914 • Challenges: volcanic soil, disease (malaria and yellow fever), dangerous conditions • Over 43, 000 workers employed • 5,600 die during construction (accidents + disease) • Cost U.S. about $380 million • U.S. paid Columbia $25 million for lost land • 51 mile trip through lock system per ship
The American Anti-Imperialist League • Founded in 1899. • Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism. • Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.