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FROM ROOSEVELT TO WILSON IN THE AGE OF PROGRESSIVISM. America: Past and Present Chapter 23. The Spirit of Progressivism. Progressivism not a coherent movement Shared values sense of evangelical Protestant duty faith in the benefits of science

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from roosevelt to wilson in the age of progressivism


America: Past and Present

Chapter 23

the spirit of progressivism
The Spirit of Progressivism
  • Progressivism not a coherent movement
  • Shared values
    • sense of evangelical Protestant duty
    • faith in the benefits of science
    • commitment to improve all aspects of American life
the rise of the professions
The Rise of the Professions
  • Professions bulwarks of Progressivism
    • Law
    • Medicine
    • Business
    • Education
    • Social work
  • Professionalism strengthened through entrance exams, national associations
the social justice movement
The Social-Justice Movement
  • Reformers forsake individualized reform to address larger structural problems
  • Apply scientific methods to social reform
  • Social work became a profession
the purity crusade
The Purity Crusade
  • Crusade against vice
  • 1911--membership in Women's Christian Temperance Union hits 250,000
  • 1916--19 states prohibit alcohol
  • 1920--18th Amendment prohibits alcohol
woman suffrage woman s rights
Woman Suffrage, Woman's Rights
  • Women fill Progressive ranks
    • National Conference of Social Work
    • General Federation of Women's Clubs
  • 1890--National American Woman Suffrage Association formed
  • 1920--Nineteenth Amendment passed
  • Suffrage seen as empowering women to benefit the disadvantaged
a ferment of ideas challenging the status quo
A Ferment of Ideas:Challenging the Status Quo
  • Progressives, pragmatists, measure value of ideas by actions they inspire
  • Reject social Darwinism
  • John Dewey--education should stress personal growth, free inquiry, creativity
a ferment of ideas challenging the status quo 2
A Ferment of Ideas:Challenging the Status Quo (2)
  • 1901--Socialist party formed
  • Unites intellectuals, factory workers, tenant farmers, miners, lumberjacks
  • Promises Progressive reform rather than overthrow of capitalism
  • 1912--Socialist presidential candidate Eugene Debs polls over 900,000 votes
reform in the cities and states
Reform in the Cities and States
  • Progressives wanted government to follow the public will
  • Reform government
    • reorganize for efficiency, effectiveness
    • new agencies address particular social ills
    • posts staffed with experts
  • Government power extended at all levels
interest groups and the decline of popular politics
Interest Groups and the Decline of Popular Politics
  • Decline in voter participation
    • 77% from 1876-1900
    • 65% from 1900-1916
    • 52% in the 1920s
    • remains near 52% through 20th century
  • Interest groups get favorable legislation through lobbying
reform in the cities
Reform in the Cities
  • Urban reform leagues form professional, nonpolitical civil service
  • Appointed commissioners replace elected officials in many cities
  • City manager idea spreads
  • Reform mayors
    • Tom Johnson of Cleveland
    • "Golden Rule" Jones of Toledo
action in the states
Action in the States
  • State regulatory commissions created to investigate economic life
  • Initiative, referendum, and recall created
  • 1917--17th Amendment provides for direct election of U.S. senators
action in the states reform governors
Action in the States:Reform Governors
  • Robert La Follette of Wisconsin
    • “Wisconsin Idea” taps experts in higher education for help in sweeping reforms
  • Other Progressive governors
    • Joseph Folk of Missouri
    • Hiram Johnson of California
    • Charles Evans Hughes of New York
    • Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey
the republican roosevelt
The Republican Roosevelt
  • Often defies convention
  • Brings an exuberance to the presidency
  • Surrounds himself with able associates
busting the trusts
Busting the Trusts
  • 1902--wave of trust-busting led by suit against Northern Securities Company
  • 1904--Northern Securities dissolved
  • Roosevelt reputed a "trust-buster"
  • Comparatively few antitrust cases under Roosevelt
square deal in the coalfields
"Square Deal" in the Coalfields
  • 1902--United Mine Workers strike in Pennsylvania threatens U.S. economy
  • U.M.W., companies to White House
  • Roosevelt wins company concessions by threatening military seizure of mines
  • Roosevelt acts as broker of interests
roosevelt progressivism at its height
Roosevelt Progressivism at Its Height
  • 1904—A four-way election
    • Republican—Theodore Roosevelt
    • Democrat—Alton B. Parker
    • Socialist—Eugene V. Debs
    • Prohibition—Silas C. Swallow
  • Roosevelt wins 57% of popular vote, 336 electoral votes
regulating the railroads
Regulating the Railroads
  • 1903--Elkins Act prohibits railroad rebates, strengthens Interstate Commerce Commission
  • Widespread popular demand for further railroad regulation after Roosevelt’s reelection
  • 1906--Hepburn Act further strengthens Interstate Commerce Commission
    • membership from five to seven
    • may fix reasonable maximum rates
    • jurisdiction broadened to include oil pipeline, express, sleeping car companies
cleaning up food and drugs
Cleaning Up Food and Drugs
  • Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle (1906)prompts federal investigation of meatpacking industry
  • 1906--Meat Inspection Act
    • sets rules for sanitary meatpacking
    • requires government inspection of meat products
  • Samuel Hopkins Adams exposes dangers of patent medicines
  • 1906--Pure Food and Drug Act
    • requires manufacturers to list certain ingredients
    • bans manufacture and sale of adulterated drugs
conserving the land
Conserving the Land
  • First comprehensive national conservation policy
    • Roosevelt works with Gifford Pinchot, chief of Forest Service
    • policy defines “conservation” as wise use of natural resources
  • Quadruples acreage under federal protection
conserving the land 2
Conserving the Land (2)
  • Roosevelt’s challenge
    • attacks “malefactors of great wealth”
    • criticizes conservatism of federal courts
    • agitates for pro-labor legislation
  • Popular response
    • business leaders blame for financial panic
    • overwhelming majority support
the ordeal of william howard taft
The Ordeal of William Howard Taft
  • Taft able administrator, poor president
  • Conservative Republicans resurge
  • Taft loses support of Progressives
party insurgency
Party Insurgency
  • Tariff splits Republicans
    • Progressives: high tariff favors trusts
    • Conservatives: high tariff protects business
  • 1909 Payne-Aldrich Act provokes Progressives to break with Taft
the ballinger pinchot affair
The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
  • Gifford Pinchot leading conservationist, Roosevelt appointee
  • Pinchot accuses Interior Secretary Richard Ballinger of selling public lands to friends
  • Taft fires Pinchot
  • Progressives antagonized
taft alienates the progressives
Taft Alienates the Progressives
  • 1910--Taft successfully pushes Mann-Elkins Act to strengthen ICC
    • empowers ICC to fix railroad rates
    • Progressive Republicans attack Taft’s plan of a Commerce Court to hear ICC appeals
    • progressives obstruct Taft’s negotiations
  • 1910--Taft attacks Progressive Republicans, Democrats gain Congress
taft alienates the progressives 2
Taft Alienates the Progressives (2)
  • Legislation protecting laborers
  • Sixteenth Amendment creates income tax
  • Taft a greater trustbuster than Roosevelt
  • Taft, Roosevelt attack one another publicly
  • 1912--Taft renominated by Republicans, little chance for victory
differing philosophies in the election of 1912
Differing Philosophies in the Election of 1912
  • Roosevelt--Progressive ("Bull Moose")
    • “New Nationalism”
    • federal regulation of economy
    • wasteful competition replaced by efficiency
  • Woodrow Wilson--Democrat
    • "New Freedom" for individual
    • restrain big business, government
  • Democrats win White House, Congress
woodrow wilson s new freedom
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom
  • Woodrow Wilson former president of Princeton, governor of New Jersey
  • Progressive, intellectual, inspiring orator
  • One of America's most effective presidents
the new freedom in action
The New Freedom in Action
  • 1913--Underwood Tariff cuts duties
  • 1913--Federal Reserve Act reforms banks, establishes stable currency
  • 1914--Clayton Antitrust Act outlaws unfair trade practices, protects unions
  • 1914--Federal Trade Commission
new freedom in action retreating from reform
New Freedom in Action: Retreating from Reform
  • November, 1914--Wilson announces the "New Freedom" has been achieved
  • It was “a time of healing because a time of just dealing”
  • Statement stuns many progressives
wilson moves toward the new nationalism
Wilson Moves Toward the New Nationalism
  • Reasons for the move
    • distracted by the outbreak of war in Europe
    • needs conservative Southern support
    • Republicans seem to gain by attacking his programs
  • 1916--Presidential election
wilson moves toward the new nationalism 2
Wilson Moves Toward the New Nationalism (2)
  • Wilson renews reform in reelection bid
    • Federal Farm Loan Act
    • intervenes in strikes on behalf of workers
    • attempts to ban child labor
    • increases income taxes on the rich
    • supports women’s suffrage
  • Program wins Wilson a close election
the fruits of the progressivism
The Fruits of the Progressivism
  • Reform of government at all levels
  • Intelligent planning of reform
  • World War I ends Progressive optimism