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Top Ten Topics from Chapter 30

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  1. Top Ten Topics from Chapter 30

  2. “What is Europe now? A rubble heap, a charnel house, a breeding ground of pestilence and hate.” -- Winston Churchill

  3. 1. Most of the world divides up between the US (tend to be democracies) and the USSR (dictatorships)

  4. Inner German Border

  5. Warsaw Pact (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance – COMECON) 1955 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)1949

  6. U.S. Philosophy of Containment “Like apples in a barrel infected by disease, the corruption of Greece would infect Iran and all the east. . . likewise Africa. . . Italy. . . France. . . .Not since Rome and Carthage had there been such a polarization of power on this earth” -- U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson

  7. “I won the Nobel prize for literature, what was your crime?

  8. Back to Purging in the USSR and now Eastern Europe too Forced laborcamps 1948-1954  Hungary 199  Czechoslovakia  124  Bulgaria 99  Romania 97  Poland 47

  9. 2. Allies of the US do much better economically, esp. in the 1950s & 1960s

  10. 3. Western Europe takes major steps towards economic unity

  11. European Economic Community 1952 6 members 1973 9 members 1981 10 members 1986 12 members

  12. 4. Decolonization (politically, but not so much economically and culturally)

  13. 5. Domestic policies in the USSR fluctuate . . .

  14. Nikita Khrushchev (1953-64)

  15. Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982)

  16. 6. . . .but the USSR retains tight control over its satellite states

  17. Czechoslovakia, 1948

  18. Hungary, 1956

  19. August 31, 1961

  20. Prague Spring, 1968Brezhnev Doctrine

  21. Detante

  22. Conservative Alliance: Thatcher, Reagan, Kohl

  23. 7. Science oriented toward war and space (“Big Science”)

  24. 8. Class structure becomes less divided • Greater accessibility of college gives more people educational opportunities • Service industry greatly expanded (more white collar than blue collar) • Government programs redistributed wealth: welfare, pensions • Most people could afford appliances and cars • Most people could afford vacations

  25. 9. Women demand more rights, students demand respect • More women in the workforce, where they faced discrimination • Demanding equal pay, maternity leave, day care, right to divorce, legalized abortion, protection from and prosecution of rape • Students living a very different lifestyle (sex, drugs and rock n’ roll) but demanding respect as adults (there are a lot of people in the generation, it is the baby boom)

  26. 10. 1970s bring economic difficulties • US spent too much (Marshall Plan, welfare programs, Korean and Vietnam wars) • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) embargoed oil sales to the US when the US supported Israel in the Yom Kippur war of 1973 • Austerity measures