Europe Before and After the Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Europe Before and After the Cold War
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Europe Before and After the Cold War

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  1. Europe Before and After the Cold War

  2. Reforms of Gorbachev

  3. Gorbachev

  4. Gorbachev’s Reforms 1985 • Had NOT emerged during Stalin’s reign • HAD contact with West • Admitted Soviet system lagged • Introduces reform • USSR abandons “superiority” over others

  5. Future of Reform • Soviet army pulled from Afghanistan • Nuclear weapons reduced • Satellite nations were surrendered • Germany is permitted to reunify

  6. Glasnost • 1986 “Openness” • Lenin-Brezhnev= totalitarian state • Fear not initiative rewarded • Religion accepted, not liked • Christians open churches, Jews leave • Dissidents released • Controls relaxed (censorship) • Criticize govt, examine social problems

  7. Two Dissidents • Alexander Solzhenitsyn • Criticized Stalin • Sent to gulag, wrote book • 1974- forced out of USSR, to US • Andrei Sakharov • Helped develop hydrogen bomb • Returned to Moscow under glasnost

  8. Sakharov

  9. Perestroika • 1986 “Economic Restructuring” • Economic hardship • Problems= central planning • Local managers= more authority • Laws allow for private business • Need for new technology

  10. Demokratizatsiya • 1989 Economic success- Party must loosen control • Multi-candidate elections • Secret ballot • New legislature Congress of Peoples’ Deputies (still only 1 party) • Gorbachev elected President

  11. Economic Reform • Market economy replaces central planning • Individual enterprise, private property • Foreign Investments • Socialism emphasized over Capitalism • Reform brings higher standard of living and problems

  12. Economic Problems • Chernobyl Accident- Explosion at a nuclear power plant in Ukraine • Economy and standard of living fall • Lack of cohesion emerged • Communism had led to artificial unity • Freedom and democracy provoke dissatisfaction • Ethnic/national groups want independence • Yeltsin and Russian Republic declare independence

  13. Chernobyl Amusement Park

  14. Arms Control • SALT- 1972 Nixon & Brezhnev • Détente- tensions lessen • Talks stall 1980’s- Gorbachev restarted • Dec. 1987 INF- (Intermediate Nuclear Forces) • Gorbachev signs w/ Reagan

  15. Fall of the Iron Curtain

  16. Poland • 1st to feel Gorbachev’s reforms • Economy hurt by 1981 military rule • 1988 walk off- Solidarity • Jaruzelski meets w/ Solidarity • ends military dictatorship

  17. Poland • 1989 free elections • 1st peaceful communist turnover • New govt.= democracy • Est. by Solidarity • Walesa elected in 1990 • Free market • Economy stabilizes-incentives • Inflation, unemployment recover

  18. Hungary • Under Kadar- communist dictatorship • Reform- free enterprise, stock market, • New constitution- free parliamentary elections (multi-party) • Oct. 1989 Radicals depose Communists • Communists vote itself out • New govt.= conservative govt.

  19. East Germany • Oct. 1989- Communist govt. loses faith, people fleeing West • Demonstrations for democracy • Honecker uses police • Police, leaders not follow orders • Honecker- resigns Oct. 18, 1989 • Nov. 1989- Berlin Wall falls

  20. Bulgaria • Todor Zhivkov- Communist Dictator resigns after Wall falls • New govt.= Multi-party govt. (mid Dec. 1989)

  21. Czechoslovakia • Milos Jakes resists change • 1989 protest (Havel) • Police attack- People demand end to communist rule • Communist govt. resigns • New govt.= Democracy under Vaclav Havel

  22. Prague 1989

  23. Czechoslovakia • Economy- inflation & unemployment • Especially in Slovakia • Jan 1,1993 2 areas divide • Could not agree on how to handle economic problems

  24. Romania • Late 1989 no democratic reform • Nicolae Ceausescu- Communist Dictator (use of secret police) • Dec. 21, 1989- demonstration • Popular uprising- army joins people • Dec. 25, 1989- shot with wife • E. Europe now had democracies

  25. Fall of the USSR

  26. Collapse of Communism • E. Europe inspires multinational states • 100 ethnic groups • Muslim groups- more religious freedom • March 11, 1990 Lithuania declares independence • Tanks move in- Gorbachev afraid other republics might follow • People look to Yeltsin- denounces use of force • 1st freely elected pres of Russian Republic

  27. Yeltsin

  28. Why the Coup? • Top Party officials, KGB, defense ministry- upset over Gorbachev about E. Europe • Fear of losing power

  29. The Coup • Gorbachev sided with • Radical democratization • Communist hardliners • Aug. 2, 1991 Communists stage Coup • Gorbachev taken into custody while on vacation • State of Emergency declared • People protest- fear of dictatorship • Yeltsin speaks against coup (gains fame)

  30. Protestors

  31. The Coup Fails • Gorbachev returns to Moscow • Resigns as Secretary General • Communist Party officially disbanded • Soviet strength had collapsed • Baltic States demand and gain independence • 10 republics declare independence (not complete break)

  32. Tanks in Moscow

  33. Yeltsin on Tank

  34. Coup Fails

  35. End of the USSR • Post-coup leaders of republics form State Council • Gorbachev president, Yeltsin most powerful • Council creates loose confederation and prevents economic collapse • Council breaks down • Commonwealth of Independent States- Ukraine, Russia,Byelorussia, others follow • Gorbachev resigns Dec. 25, 1991

  36. The Republics • Uncertain future • Lack of democratic experience • Size • Ethnic diversity • Questions • Economic cooperation? • Common foreign policy, secure nuclear weapons? • Preserve law and order?

  37. New Germany

  38. West Germany • Shortages in food and housing- East Germans flee • Konrad Adenauer- first chancellor • Led German recovery • Industrialized, skilled workers, resources • Marshall Plan- modern technology • Europe’s economic leader

  39. West Germany • 1969 Willy Brandt- “Ostopolitik” (eastern policy” • Ease tension with Soviet Bloc • 1982 Helmut Kohl- closer ties with US • Convince- new Germany not threat • 1990 plans reunification of Germanys • Challenge: Modernized West and Backwards East

  40. New Germany • E. Germany in ruins • Not modernized since WWII • Rebuilding • $100 billion in early 1990s (taxes) • 1994 3 million jobless (inefficient factories) • C. Europe’s largest, wealthiest country

  41. Neo-Nazi Violence • Early 1990’s refugees from Yugoslavian wars • Constitution guaranteed refuge • Unemployed Germans angered- job stealing • Kohl- “This republic is not Weimar”

  42. The Wall

  43. The Wall Falls

  44. Cracks in the Wall

  45. The Wall Falls

  46. Cracks in the Wall

  47. Changes in Eastern Europe

  48. Yugoslavia • Dec. 29, 1989- Communist leaders suggest multi-party system • Broke apart in war • Ethnic groups- Serbs, Croats, Muslims, Slovenes, Macedonians, Montenegrins • 6 republics

  49. Ethnic Ties • Differences: • Serbs- Greek Orthodox, Cyrillic alphabet • Croats & Slovenes- Catholic, Roman alphabet • Similarities: • Both don’t like Muslims • Common tie = common country

  50. Croatia & Slovenia • Tito kept country together • Want Yugo. to be loose alliance of sovereign state • S. Milosevic- reassert Serbian leadership in Yugo. • 1991 seized power from self-governing Kosovo • June 1991 Invades (large Serb minority) • 1992 UN ceasefire