The final casualty count: 72 Million The Cost of the War • 420,000 Americans • 23 million Russians • 7.5 million Germans • 6 Million Jews • 4% of the 1940 world population
The Cost of the War The war cost $2.1 trillion dollars.
War Crimes Trials • Occupation of Germany • Occupation of Eastern Europe • Occupation of Japan • The United Nations • Marshall Plan • Warsaw Pact • NATO • The Cold war Impacts of World War II
Many atrocities • took place at the • hands of the Axis • Powers. • 11 Million murdered • During the Holocaust by • The Nazis • Estimates up to 30 million • Slaughtered by the Japanese • (Rape of Nanking) War Crimes Trials
Nuremberg Trials 24 Nazi Civilian and Military leaders are put on trial for crimes against humanity
12 executed, 4 acquitted, 8 given a prison sentence Nuremberg Trials Karl Donitz Hermann Goering Ernst Kaltenbrunner Prison Death Death
25 put on Trial, 7 executed Tokyo War Crimes Hideki Tojo -- Death ItagakiSeishiro -- Death
The United Nations When does talk about established the “United Nations” begin? What does the UN plan to replace?
The United Nations April 25, 1945: 50 nations meet in San Francisco to establish a new Worldwide peacekeeping body. Which country stands out?
The Occupation of Eastern Europe Following Germany’s defeat, Stalin’s army Remains in Eastern Europe (Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Etc.)
Occupation of Eastern Europe Stalin takes over the governments of these countries and establishes Communist puppet states know as “satellite nations.”
Occupation of Eastern Europe • Stalin’s Goals: • Expansion of power • Encourage the spread of communism • Create a barrier between Russia & Germany • Use Eastern Europe’s raw materials to rebuild Russia’s economy • Counterbalance U.S. influence
Occupation of Germany • Germany divided by the four allied powers • Great Britain, U.S.A., and France control West Germany • Russia controls East Germany
Occupation of Germany The German capital, Berlin, is split as well even though it is inside of Eastern Germany.
The Iron Curtain “A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Allied victory . . . From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”
The Cold WAr
The Cold War 1945 1990 The Cold War begins at the end of World War II and ends with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991
The Marshall Plan To help avoid war and rebuild Western Europe, the U.S. gives over $13 Billion to participating nations.
The Marshall Plan Can anyone think of another reason the U.S. would give all that money to these unstable countries?
The Berlin Airlift 1948: Stalin attempts to take over the parts of Berlin that belong to the Western powers. He closes off all highway and rail routes into West Berlin.
The Berlin Airlift The Western powers begin to send relief. 327 days 277,000 flights 2.3 million tons of supplies.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • Increased fear of Soviet aggression after Berlin blockade • Ten Western European nations, along with the U.S. and Canada, create the North Atlantic Treaty organization. • Pledge military support if one nation is attacked. • First peacetime military alliance in U.S. History.
The Warsaw Pact • Created by the Soviet Union in response to NATO and West Germany’s rearmament. • Linked the Soviet Union with seven Eastern Bloc countries.