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Copy the following onto Portfolio p40

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  1. Copy the following onto Portfolio p40 Federalism– (allow 3 lines for a definition)

  2. Lesson 8.3a: Ratifying the Constitution Today we will evaluate the major debates that took place during the ratification of the Constitution.

  3. Vocabulary • evaluate – to decide value or worth of something • debate – a discussion or argument • ratification – the process of getting official public approval of a new law or policy

  4. Check for Understanding • What are we going to do today? • What is something you might evaluate? • Why is it often difficult to win a debate with an adult? • Why is ratification important in passing a new law? • What is a constitution?

  5. What We Already Know In 1787, many Americans still remembered how hard they had to fight to protect their rights from a government that threatened their rights.

  6. What We Already Know When the Articles of Confederation failed to provide a government strong enough to meet the needs of the country, state delegates met to create a new constitution and a more effective national government.

  7. What We Already Know Although compromises were crafted on several issues to create a new constitution, the various debates showed that the delegates had strong differences of opinion about how the government should work.

  8. A B C Using your whiteboards, indicate which of the three causes shown above, that you think was the most important reason why people wanted to change the Articles of Confederation.

  9. Track with me! The men who attended the Constitutional Convention and wrote the Constitution are often referred to as ‘the framers of the Constitution.’

  10. The framers suspected that the people might be afraid the Constitution would take too much power away from the states. James Madison Father of the Constitution

  11. Framers of the Constitution explained that it was based on federalism, meaning that the powers of government are shared between the national government and the state governments.

  12. Those who supported the Constitution became known as Federalists. People who opposedthe Constitution were called Anti-Federalists.

  13. What is federalism? Federalism is a system of government in which power is shared between the national government and the state governments.

  14. Track with me: • Both Federalists and Antifederalists believed that the government was too weak under the Articles of Confederation. • But they disagreed over just how much power should be taken from the states and transferred to the national government.

  15. Leading Federalists Alexander Hamilton John Jay James Madison

  16. Leading Antifederalists George Mason Patrick Henry

  17. FederalistsandAntifederalistsdisagreed over how strong the national government should be. from textbook page 235

  18. FederalistsandAntifederalistsdisagreed over how strong the national government should be. from textbook page 235

  19. FederalistsandAntifederalistsdisagreed over how strong the national government should be. from textbook page 235

  20. FederalistsandAntifederalists • Federalists wanted a strong central government. • They wanted the powers of government to be divided between three branches. • The Federalists also wanted the executive branch to be strong enough to enforce federal laws in all the states, especially the collection of taxes and tariffs. A tariff is a tax on imported goods.

  21. FederalistsandAntifederalists • Most Antifederalists were opposed to a strong executive branch, because they thought that a strong president might become a king. • Some Antifederalists thought the Senate might become a powerful aristocracy. An aristocracy is a government ruled by wealthy nobles.

  22. FederalistsandAntifederalists • Antifederalists thought the Constitution took too much power away from the states. • They supported states’ rights, which give the states more power than the national government. • Antifederalists also were suspicious of the Constitution because it contained no bill of rights.

  23. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

  24. 17a. What was the Federalist positions on states’ rights and a strong central government? • Federalists felt the Articles had created a weak government. • Federalists believed that power should be shared between the federal government and the states. • Federalists thought the Constitution took too much power away from the states. • Federalists were suspicious of the Constitution because it contained no bill of rights. Choose all that are true!

  25. 17b. What was the Antifederalist positions on states’ rights and a strong central government? • Antifederalists opposed the Constitution because it did not create a strong executive branch. • Antifederalists strongly supported states' rights. • Antifederalists thought the Constitution took too much power away from the states. • Antifederalists believed a bill of rights should be added to the Constitution. • Antifederalists demanded a stronger federal government. Choose all that are true!

  26. TheFederalistswrote essays to answer the Antifederalists’ attacks. • These essays – known as The Federalist papers – were written by three well-known politicians: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. • These essays were published in newspapers, so all the people could read them. • In The Federalist papers, Federalists appealed to reason and emotion, explaining why people should support ratification.

  27. Most of the newspaperssupported the Constitution, which gave the Federalists an advantage during the battle for ratification. • Even so, there was strong opposition to ratification in Massachusetts, North Carolina, Rhode Island, New York, and Virginia. • If some of these states failed to ratify the Constitution, the United States might not survive.

  28. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

  29. 18. What were The Federalist Papers?

  30. The Federalist Papers were a series of essays in support of the Constitution, written by John Jay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton to give . . . • the reasons for their opposition to the Constitution. • an interpretation of the Constitution so that the people would support it. • reasons why Congress should restore trade with Britain. • an explanation why the United States was supporting the revolution in France.

  31. 19. How did the Federalistsand the Antifederalists try to win support for their sides in the debate over the Constitution? • They made personal attacks on the reputations of the men on the other side. • They published their views in newspapers, essays, and pamphlets. • They appealed to the fears and emotions of the American people. • They traveled through the states giving speeches.

  32. 20. What advantage did Federalists have over Antifederalists in the debate over ratification? • Most members of the Constitutional Convention were Federalists. • Most newspapers supported the Constitution, and gave the Federalists more publicity. • Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, was himself a Federalist. • All the political leaders in Virginia were supporters of the Constitution.

  33. Lesson 8.3b: Ratifying the Constitution Today we will detail the major objections some people had to the ratification of the Constitution.

  34. Today’s Vocabulary • detail – to give descriptive facts • ratify – to give support or approval for someone else’s decision or action • ratification – the process of getting official public approval of a new law or policy • bill of rights – formal list of the basic rights of the people

  35. Check for Understanding • What are we going to do today? • Would you ratify your parents’ decision to give you a new iPad? • How would you express your ratification of that decision?

  36. What We Already Know Delegates at the constitutional convention hammered out a document that they hoped would serve the country well.

  37. What We Already Know Two groups emerged during the convention: Federalists who supported the Constitution and its stronger central government, and the Antifederalists who felt the Constitution took too much power from the states and did not do enough to guarantee the rights of American citizens.

  38. What We Already Know The Federalists and the Antifederalists waged a war of words in every state in an attempt to win public support for their point of view on the new constitution.

  39. LEFTtellRIGHT • What two groups fought over ratification of the Constitution? • Be sure to re-state the question in your response! RIGHTtellLEFT

  40. The Battle for Ratification • There was strong opposition to ratification in Massachusetts, North Carolina, Rhode Island, New York, and Virginia. • If some of these states failed to ratify the Constitution, the United States might not survive.

  41. States began to vote on the new Constitution. • By June 1788, enough states had voted in favor, and the Constitution was ratified. • Virginia, the largest state, had still not ratified it yet, however.

  42. VirginiansPatrick Henry and George Mason refused to support the Constitution until a bill of rights was added. James Madison convinced his fellow Virginians to ratify the Constitution by promising to see to it that a bill of rights would be added later. Eventually, all thirteen states ratified the Constitution. George Mason Patrick Henry

  43. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

  44. 21. Why did George Mason andPatrick Henryoppose the ratification of the Constitution? • It did nothing to protect slavery. • It did not contain a bill of rights. • It gave too much power to the states. • They were angry about not being invited to the Annapolis Convention. Patrick Henry George Mason

  45. LEFTtellRIGHT • How did James Madison convince his fellow Virginians to support ratification? • Be sure to re-state the question in your response! RIGHTtellLEFT

  46. Madison helped win ratification. • At Virginia’s convention, James Madison suggested that Virginia ratify the Constitution, and he promised to support the addition of a bill of rights. • The news of Virginia’s vote convinced New York to join the Union, also calling for a bill of rights.

  47. Madison helped win ratification. • By 1790 North Carolina and Rhode Island ratified the Constitution. • By then, the new Congress had already written a bill of rights and submitted it to the states for approval.

  48. The Bill of Rights • At the same time that seven of the states ratified the Constitution, they asked that it be amended to include a bill of rights. • Supporters of a bill of rights hoped that it would set forth the rights of all Americans. • They believed it was needed to protect people against the power of the national government.

  49. The Bill of Rights • Madison, who was elected to the new Congress in the winter of 1789, took up the cause. • He proposed a set of changes to the Constitution, and he started with freedom of religion. • In the very first amendment, Madison addressed the issue of religious freedom.

  50. Get your whiteboards and markers ready!