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CHAPTER 16 – THE CIVIL WAR BEGINSSection 2 – Life in the Army Today we will discuss Civil War soldiers, their military training, and the hardships of army life.
Vocabulary • hygiene – conditions and practices that promote health • enlist – join the military • drill – marching practice in a military unit • cavalry – soldiers on horses • infantry – soldiers on foot
Check for Understanding • What are we going to do today? • What does it mean to enlist?
What is hygiene? Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that promote health.
What We Already Know The Confederate victory at the Battle of Bull Run thrilled the South.
What We Already Know Lincoln sent the 90-day militias home and called for a real army of 500,000 volunteers for three years.
What We Already Know Volunteers rushed to enlist on both sides, many fearing the war would be over before they could join the fight.
Those Who Fought • 18-30-year-olds • About half on both sides were farmers. • Many were immigrants, especially from Germany and Ireland. • African Americans saw the war as a way to end slavery. • At first neither the North nor the South accepted blacks into their armies. • Native Americans served on both sides.
Those Who Fought • Why did 2 million soldiers serve the Union, and almost 1 million serve the Confederacy? • Adventure and glory • Escape from boredom • Friends and neighbors were volunteering. • Recruitment money • Loyalty to their country or state • For blacks, to end slavery
13. What kind of men fought in the Civil War?? Choose ALL that are true!
13. What kind of men fought in the Civil War? • Most were 18-30 years old. • Many were immigrants. • Most were farmers. • Many were either slave owners or abolitionists. • Many were free blacks. Choose all that are true!
Why did men enlist in the army during the Civil War? Choose the one that is NOT true!
Why did men enlist in the army during the Civil War? • Many African Americans wanted to fight in the war as a way to end slavery. • Many enlistees hated what the other side stood for, and wanted to kill as many enemy soldiers as possible. • Some farmers and factory workers saw the war as an adventurous way to escape a life of boredom. • Some fought out of loyalty to their nation or belief in its cause. • Some enlisted to get the recruitment money offered by both sides. Choose the one that is NOT true!
Turning Civilians into Soldiers • Lived in tents and log huts • Heavily scheduled day of drill and duties • Guard duty, wood cutting, digging latrines, etc. • Problems with uniforms • Food and supply problems
Hardships of Army Life Both Union and Confederate soldiers endured hunger, cold, dirty living conditions, constant sickness, poor medical treatment, and bad hygiene.
Hardships of Army Life • Soldiers exposed to the weather • Unsanitary camps • Weeks between baths and clean clothes • Lice and fleas spread disease • Poor hygiene led to illness • Contaminated food and water • Poor medical care • More than twice as many soldiers died from disease than battle wounds.
Both Northern and Southern soldiers alike had to endure all the following EXCEPT • boredom and hunger. • cold, dirty living conditions. • constant sickness. • poor medical treatment. • incompetent military leadership.
What was the main cause of death in the Civil War? • Suicide • The Minié ball • Snakebite • Disease • Ironclads
15. Why was disease the main cause of death in the Civil War? • poor diet • contaminated water and food • exposure to cold and rain • unsanitary conditions • intentional exposure to germs by the enemy Choose the one that is NOT true!
Changes in Military Technology • Rifles • Minié balls • Ironclads
Changes in Military Technology A rifle is a gun with a grooved barrel that causes a bullet to spin through the air, giving the bullet more distance and accuracy.
Changes in Military Technology A minié ball is a bullet with a hollow base, which expands upon firing to fit the grooves in the rifle barrel.
Changes in Military Technology • Tactics like cavalry charges and infantry assaults didn’t work as well as before. • The increased range and accuracy of the rifle allowed defenders to shoot charging attackers before they could reach their position.
Changes in Military Technology An ironclad is a wooden warship covered with iron plates.
The first battle between ironclads took place on March 9, 1862. The CSS Virginiabattled the USS Monitorfor four hours, before sailing away.
16. What new technology was introduced during the Civil War? • the minié ball • ironclad ships • land mines • poison gas • rifles • explosive rockets Choose all that are true!
How did use of the rifle and minié ball change combat tactics in the Civil War? • Their low cost allowed more soldiers to have more bullets, causing higher enemy casualties. • Their rapid-fire capabilities gave one soldier the firepower of five men fighting in earlier wars. • Their greater range and accuracy turned cavalry charges and traditional assaults into slaughter. • They struck their targets with greater destructive force and made stronger defensive fortifications necessary.