Ancient Mesopotamia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient Mesopotamia

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  1. Ancient Mesopotamia

  2. Social • Patriarchy • Social system which father is head of family • Matriarchy • Social system in which mother is head • Women held an equal status, but could not be educated • Hammurabi • Leader of Babylonian Empire • Est. legal code to unify all people • Property laws were important

  3. Political • Theocracy • Govt. controlled by priests b/c they were closest to gods/ God • They would bless crops & communicate w/ higher beings • Kings eventually take over • Ethic/ Moral Codes • Babylonians • Hammurabi’s Code- 282 laws w/ specific consequences • Different punishments for weath/ gender • Hebrews • Govt. responsible to citizens • 10 commandments

  4. Religion • Polytheism • Many gods from various forms of nature • Enlil- god of clouds/air brought rain and floods • Monotheism • Belief in one God- Hebrews • Zoroaster • Persian religious prophet • Believed people are good or bad, no middle, not predestined • People determine their fate

  5. Intellectual • Language/ Writing • Why did it develop? • To communicate & record transactions • Sumerians • 4000 B.C. • 1rst writing system, Cuneiform was created • Boys are schooled, girls are not • Epics • Gilgamesh • Stories that reinforce values • Phoenician Alphabet • Alphabet was phonic • Ziggurats • Temples/city hall were pyramid shaped arches, columns, and ramps

  6. Technology • Irrigation • Planned system that increased growing area (demonstrated power of Govt.) • Calendar • Defined by planting seasons and stars • Wagon Wheel • Revolutionized building and life • Pottery • Clay pots needed to store goods • Provided pies of daily life • Metals • Bronze

  7. Economic • Cultural Diffusion • Ideas for society, Govt., religion, and trade were exchanged alongside of goods • Phoenicians • Great traders of good & culture