WW1 Peace Treaties&The Legacy of the War13-4 Jessica, Sunny, Rachel
The Story so far… • World War I is over, the killing has ceased. • January 18, 1919, a conference was built at the Palace of Versailles. • The Allied powers, the victors of WWI, meet to clean up the war mess.
Meeting at Versailles • Paris Peace Conference • Delegates representing 32 countries • Major decisions were made by the Big Four: • Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) • Georges Clemenceau (France) • David Lloyd George (Great Britain) • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Woodrow’s Plan 1918 • Woodrow proposed his Fourteen Points • Outlined a plan for maintaining peace • Proposed the following points: • 1st Point: End all secret treaties • 2nd Point: Freedom of the Seas • 3rd Point: Free trade • 4th Point: Reduce national armies (trying to stop militarism) • 5th Point: Colonial Fairness (trying to stop harsh imperialism) • 6th-13th Points: Rearranging borders (self-determination) • 14th Point: Create a general association of nations that would negotiate solutions to world conflicts
Unsatisfied with Wilson’s plan • Plan threatened national security • Plan was too nice– GB and France thought it lacked punishment against Germany • Wanted to take away Germany’s power • Clemenceau wanted Germany to pay for France’s suffering • France lost more than 1,000,000 soldiers and civilians during wartime. This was about 11% of the population. • France’s land was destroyed and devastated.
Treaty of Versailles 1919 • French, British, and U.S. argued and finally compromised. The product was The Treaty of Versailles. • Signed between Germany and the Allied powers, June 28. 1919. • Adopted Wilson’s 14th point, created League of Nations • Aimed for world peace, stopping further wars • General Assembly, 32 allied and neutral nations • Executive Council, the 5 Allied Powers • U.S. • Great Britain • France • Italy • Japan Germany and Russia were left out of the League of Nations.
Punishments Against Germany • Treaty of Versailles also punished Germany: • Portions of Germany’s territories were taken away, colonies in Asia and Africa were given to League of Nations to be administered. • Military restrictions • Article 231-” Germany was solely responsible for the war”, therefore, had to pay reparations to the Allies. Alsace-Lorraine is given up to France Germany
New Nations Formed • Negotiated between Allies and defeated nations (Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire) 1919, 1920. It literally broke down Europe into many tinier new nations. • Austro-Hungarian Empire was broken down into independent nations: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia • Ottomans had to give up all the land lost in Southwest Asia, losing Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan to British rule. Syria and Lebanon went to France. The Ottomans could only keep Turkey. • Russia lost territory to Romania and Poland. Also, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (formerly part of Russia) become independent nations. Europe Before WWI After WWI
Unlasting peace • U.S. rejected the treaty • Americans thought that if they wanted peace, they should get themselves out of European affairs. • Germany is upset • War-guilt clause caused them to hate the Allies. • Economically devastated • Militarily restricted • In their point of view, unfairly sanctioned • Colonies were unsatisfied that they could still not gain independence • Japan and Italy did not get what they wanted out of the war—land, so also backed out. • Without consent or support of U.S., the League of Nations could not do anything to amend or take any action. • Observer at Versailles noted the treaty was merely, “a peace built on quicksand.”
Legacy of WWI • This was a New kind of war. New weapons and technology were introduced killing people faster, and more efficiently than ever before. • War was brought to the global scale • People could see that war could get extremely destructive.
War costs Approx. 8.5 million soldiers died 21 million people were wounded Many died of starvation and disease Economic impact: $338 billion! Miles and miles of farmland, villages destroyed Sum it UP
War Effects, cont. • Many soldiers were disillusioned • People felt insecure and hopeless during wartime
Photo cr. Slide 3 Woodrow Wilson photo from: http://www.visitingdc.com/images/woodrow-wilson-picture.jpg Georges Clemenceau photo from: http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin14/imag1396.jpg David Lloyd photo from: http://www.probertencyclopaedia.com/j/Lloyd-George.jpg Vittorio Orlando photo from: http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin07/imag0640.jpg Slide 5 Thumbs down photo from: http://blog.sellsiusrealestate.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/06/Complaints%20thumbs%20down-784494.jpg Slide 6 League of Nations photo from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Symbol_of_the_League_of_Nations.svg Slide 7 Alsace-Lorraine photo from: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9c/Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F-Lothringen.svg/650px-Deutsches_Reich_%28Karte%29_Elsa%C3%9F-Lothringen.svg.png Slide 8 Slide 9, machine gun photo from: http://www.answers.com/topic/technology-during-world-war-I tank photo from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanks_in_World_War_I