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Teaching About Treaties. Networking Meeting November 2011. Why teach students about treaties?.

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teaching about treaties

Teaching About Treaties

Networking Meeting

November 2011

why teach students about treaties
Why teach students about treaties?

“Treaty education is an important part of forging new ties. There must be an appreciation in the minds of the general public that Treaties are living, breathing documents that continue to bind us to promises made generations ago. This is why…government is committed to making mandatory instruction in history and content of the Treaties in the K-12 curriculum.”

Speech from the Throne, 2007

why teach students about treaties1
Why teach students about treaties?
  • Historical imperative – Treaties played an important part in the history of Saskatchewan and Canada.
  • Economic imperative – Treaty Land Entitlement is helping to restore the opportunity for self sufficiency for First Nations
  • Moral imperative – We are all Treaty People
treaty education
Treaty Education
  • is included throughout the Social Studies
  • is incorporated where possible and practical in other subject areas
  • is more than learning about specific numbered treaties, including:
    • historical considerations
    • socio-cultural considerations
    • geographic considerations
teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade one social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade One Social Studies
  • IN1.2 Discuss cultural diversity in the family and classroom, including exploration of similarities and differences.

Indicator e. Explore attributes common to cultural groups represented within the classroom and school (e.g., foods, arts, festivals, Treaties, leisure time activities, community celebrations).

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade one social studies1
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade One Social Studies
  • IN1.3 Assess ways in which relationships help to meet human needs.

Indicator d. Illustrate relationships that could meet needs in a fashion similar to a family relationship (e.g., Treaty, business partnership, team membership).

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade one social studies2
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum Correlation Grade One Social Studies
  • DR1.2 Describe kinship patterns of the past and present and describe according to traditional teachings (e.g., Medicine Wheel teachings).
teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade two social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Two Social Studies
  • DR2.4 Describe the influence of Treaty and First Nations people on the local community.
teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade two social studies1
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Two Social Studies
  • PA2.1 Analyze how decisions are made within the local community.

Indicator b. Give examples of leadership in the local community, and describe ways leadership is demonstrated (e.g., mayor, reeve, chief, Elders, community volunteers).

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade two social studies2
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Two Social Studies
  • PA2.3 Analyze rights and responsibilities of citizens in the school and local community.

Indicator b. Identify Treaty rights of members of the community.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade two social studies3
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Two Social Studies
  • RW2.2 Analyze various worldviews regarding the natural environment.

Indicator a. Investigate traditional First Nations worldviews of the relationship between humanity and the environment.

Indicator b. Describe traditional western European worldviews of the relationship between humanity and the environment.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade three social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Three Social Studies
  • DR 3.3 Compare the beliefs of various communities around the world regarding living on and with the land.

Indicator a. Research the view of land as held by indigenous peoples in communities studied.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade four social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Four Social Studies
  • IN4.1 Analyze how First Nations and Métis people have shaped and continue to shape Saskatchewan.
teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade four social studies1
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Four Social Studies
  • IN4.2 Describe the origins of the cultural diversity in Saskatchewan communities.

Indicator a. Identify the traditional locations of the various First Nations tribes and language groupings in Saskatchewan prior to European contact.

Indicator b. Detail the ways in which First Nations peoples supported the survival of early European newcomers to Saskatchewan.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade four social studies2
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Four Social Studies
  • DR4.2 Explain the relationship of First Nations and Métis peoples with the land.

Indicator a. Investigate the traditional worldviews of First Nations peoples prior to European contact regarding land as an animate object and sustaining life force.

dr 4 2 continued
DR 4.2 continued

Indicator b. Research traditional lifestyles of First Nations communities and peoples prior to European contact (e.g., hunting, gathering, movement of people to follow food sources).

Indicator c. Explore how the traditional worldviews and teachings of First Nations’ Elders regarding land influence the lifestyle of First Nations people today.

dr 4 2 continued1
DR 4.2 (continued)

Indicator e. Compare the traditional views of land and culture of the Aboriginal peoples of Saskatchewan with those of the railway developers.

Indicator f. Assess the impact of historic loss of land on First Nations and Métis people.

Indicator g. Investigate the process by which decisions were made about the location of reserve lands in Saskatchewan.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade four social studies3
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Four Social Studies
  • DR4.3 Analyze the implications of the Treaty relationship in Saskatchewan.

Indicator a. Locate Treaty areas within Saskatchewan and locate reserves within the Treaty area of the school.

Indicator b. Investigate conditions which precipitated Treaty negotiations in Saskatchewan.

dr 4 3 continued
DR 4.3 continued

Indicator c. Research Treaty provisions, including the spirit and intent of Treaties as well as material considerations.

Indicator d. Assess the benefits of Treaties to all Saskatchewan people.

grade four continued
Grade Four continued
  • PA4.3 Demonstrate an understanding of the First Nations system of governance.

Indicator a. Research the structures of governance in First Nations communities (e.g., local band council, tribal council, Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, Assembly of First Nations).

Indicator b. Compare the traditional processes for selection of leaders in First Nations communities to current practices for selection of leaders in First Nations.

Indicator c. Compile an inventory of issues of current focus for First Nations governments in Saskatchewan.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade five social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Five Social Studies
  • IN5.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the Aboriginal heritage of Canada.

Indicator d. Assess the coming together of First Nations peoples with the French and British explorers and settlers, including the effect of the fur trade on the First Nations and the Métis in early Canada.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade five social studies1
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Five Social Studies
  • DR5.2 Assess the impact of the environment on the lives of people living in Canada.

Indicator b. Explain how different traditional worldviews of Earth affect the use of resources in Canada (e.g., Aboriginal and European attitudes toward ownership, Treaties, Crown land, homesteads, and the seigniorial system).

Indicator c. Investigate the relationship of various First Nations peoples with the environment, including economic relationships, migration, and settlement patterns prior to Confederation.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade five social studies2
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Five Social Studies
  • PA5.2 Explain the purposes and functions of governance structures in Canada, including First Nations systems and those patterned on the Westminster parliamentary system.

Indicator b. Investigate the structure of First Nations governments in Canada, using accurate terminology (e.g., elected chief, hereditary chief, band, band council, treaty, self-government, Assembly of First Nations).

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade five social studies3
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Five Social Studies
  • PA5.3 Develop an understanding of the nature of the treaty relationship between First Nations and Canada’s federal government.

Indicator a. Explain what a treaty is, and the purpose of a treaty.

Indicator b. Affirm that all Saskatchewan residents are treaty people.

pa 5 3 continued
PA 5.3 continued

Indicator c. Investigate the spirit and intent of the treaties from the perspective of the Crown and the First Nations in Western Canada.

Indicator d. Undertake an inquiry to examine the extent to which treaty promises have been met by parties to the treaties, and why the fulfillment of treaty obligations is important for all Canadians.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade six social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Six Social Studies
  • DR 6.3 Appraise the strategies human societies have used to orient themselves within time and place in the natural environment.

Indicator d. Investigate the Aboriginal understanding of day, night, and seasons as part of global cycles.

dr 6 3 continued
DR 6.3 continued
  • Indicator e. Describe and compare diverse approaches to natural resource and land use among First Nations and Métis peoples in Canada, among indigenous peoples in countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and non-indigenous peoples of these regions, and explore how these diverse approaches have come into conflict and been in harmony in various time periods and locations.
teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade six social studies1
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Six Social Studies
  • PA 6.2 Analyze the distribution of power and privilege in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.

Indicator c. Investigate the concept of white privilege, and assess the degree to which it exists within Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.

Indicator d. Identify the personal and societal impact of white privilege on individuals and groups within Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade seven social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Seven Social Studies
  • DR 7.1 Analyze and use various types of maps (that provide differing perspectives and information for differing purposes) in order to situate current issues in Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and northern circumpolar countries.

Indicator d. Locate and identify Treaty territories on a map of Canada.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade seven social studies1
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Seven Social Studies
  • DR 7.3 Analyze the relationship between current and historical events and the physical and social environments in Pacific and northern Canada and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.

Indicator c. Analyze the influence of contact with another culture on the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, circumpolar countries, and a selection of Pacific Rim countries (e.g., the influence of Europeans on the indigenous peoples of Canada, Mexico, and Australia).

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade eight social studies
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Eight Social Studies
  • DR8.2 Describe the influence of the treaty relationship on Canadian identity.

Indicator a. Describe the influence of varying views of the land in motivating the treaty relationship.

Indicator b. Explore unfulfilled aspects of Treaty (e.g., education, health care) in Canada.

Indicator c. Explore the Treaty Land Entitlement process in Canada.

Indicator d. Relate land claims and fishing and hunting rights to treaty provisions.

Indicator e. Represent the benefits of the treaties for all Canadians.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade eight social studies1
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Eight Social Studies
  • DR8.3 Assess how historical events in Canada have affected the present Canadian identity

While a wide variety of options are presented in the indicators associated with this outcome, teachers may choose to focus on the Treaty relationship for indicator b.

teaching treaties curriculum correlation grade eight social studies2
Teaching Treaties – Curriculum CorrelationGrade Eight Social Studies
  • PA8.2 Examine the role of power and authority in the application of diverse decision-making processes in a variety of contexts.

Indicator c. Investigate and describe the consensus decision-making model employed in traditional Aboriginal communities or jurisdictions.

Indicator d. Describe traditional First Nations, Inuit, and Métis models of governance and selection of leaders.

resources for teaching about treaties
Resources for Teaching About Treaties
  • Various resources are available for teachers to increase their personal knowledge about Treaties.
  • Among these resources are those from the Office of the Treaty Commissioner
  • These may be accessed via the OTC website at http://www.otc.ca
  • Teacher librarians can be vital link
resources for teaching about treaties1
Resources for Teaching About Treaties
  • The OTC resources include materials for Grades K-6 and Grades 7 – 12.
  • The K-6 Draft materials from OTC, distributed to every school in Saskatchewan, include the document entitled Treaty Essential Learnings.
k 6 otc rersources
K- 6 OTC Rersources
  • There are teacher reference materials from the OTC for Grades K – 6 in the resource Teaching Treaties in the Classroom: A Treaty Resource Guide for Kindergarten to Grade Six.
grades seven to twelve
Grades Seven to Twelve
  • There are also teacher reference materials from the OTC for Grades 7 – 12 in the resource Teaching Treaties in the Classroom.
  • This kit includes books, video, and copies of the Treaties in effect in Saskatchewan
other resources
Other Resources
  • Other resources may be accessed via the federal Department of Indian affairs and Northern Development, via their website.
  • Also useful is the book Knots in a String: an Introduction to Native Studies in Canada (2nd ed.) University of Saskatchewan (publisher)
closure
Closure
  • This is the end of today’s presentation. Please forward any comments or further questions to me at the following email address:

brent.toles@gov.sk.ca