The mandible ramus of mandible angle of mandible Body of mandible It’s the bone of lower jaw. It’s the most inferior structure in the skull anterior view. Itconsists of: the body of mandibleanteriorly. the ramus of mandibleposteriorly. These meet posteriorly at theangle of mandible.
The mandible Mental foramen Oblique ridge Themental protuberance is a projection at middline where the two sides of the mandible meet. On each side mental foramenis visible, passing through it mental nerve & vessels. There is also oblique ridge for muscle attachment
The mandible Coronoid process Condylar process On lateral view the superior part of the ramus extends upwards to form a condylar and coronoid process. Thecondylar process is involved in articulation of the mandible with the temporal bone. The coronoid process is the point of attachment for the temporalis muscle
The mandible Mylohyoid ridge Fossa for submandibular gland Fossa for sublingual gland On medial surface of mandible body: Submandibular fossa for submandibular S. gland Sublingual fossafor sublingual S. gland Mylohyoid ridge for mylohyoid muscle attachment.
Cervical vertebrae The seven cervical vertebrae form the bony framework of the neck. .
Cervical vrtebrae Typical Cervical vertebrae are characterized by: Small bodies. Bifid smallspinous processes. Transverseprocesses that contain a foramen (foramen transversarium). Large triangular vertebral foramen. Superior articular processes facing backward & upward. Inferiorarticular processes facing forward & downward.
Cervical vrtebrae Together the foramina transversarium form a longitudinal passage on each side of the cervical spine for vertebral blood vessels (artery and veins) passing between the base of the neck and the cranial cavity.
Cervical vrtebrae Atypical Cervical vertebrae : The upper two cervical vertebrae (CI and CII) are modified for moving the head. The first cervical vrtebra (atlas): It hasneither body or spinous process . It hasanterior arch, posterior arch &a lateral mass on each side. Each lateral mass has articular surfaces on its upper & lower aspects.
Cervical vrtebrae Atlas articulating with Axis Theatlasartigulates superiorly with skull occipital condyles & inferiorly with the axis. The second cervical vrtebra (axis): It hasodontoid process (dens) which projects upward from the superior surface of body. The seventh cervical vrtebrahas long & not bifid spine