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IBS – An Integrative Approach. Dr. Shandis Price April 21, 2012 Annual Scientific Assembly. Objectives. To review diagnosis and pathophysiology of IBS To review diet and IBS To become aware of botanicals that may be useful in the management of IBS

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ibs an integrative approach

IBS – An Integrative Approach

Dr. Shandis Price

April 21, 2012

Annual Scientific Assembly

  • To review diagnosis and pathophysiology of IBS
  • To review diet and IBS
  • To become aware of botanicals that may be useful in the management of IBS
  • To review probiotics, acupuncture and mind-body treatments for IBS
ibs definition
IBS - definition
  • A syndrome characterized by chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits without an organic cause
    • Most common GI disorder
    • More common in women and younger patients
    • Abdominal pain usually crampy
      • Often worse after eating and with emotional stress
      • Often better with defecation
  • Rome III criteria (revised 2005)
    • Recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort
      • at least 3 days per month in the past 3 months
      • onset at least 6 months prior to diagnosis
      • associated with 2 or more of the following:
        • improvement of pain with defecation
        • Onset of pain associated with a change in frequency of stool
        • Onset of pain associated with a change in the form (appearance) of stool
diagnosis cont d
Diagnosis (cont’d)
  • Supportive Sx (not part of Rome criteria)
    • Abnormal stool frequency
      • </= 3 BM’s per week or >3 BM’s per day
    • Abnormal stool form
      • lumpy/hard, loose/watery
    • Defecation straining
    • Urgency
    • Feeling of incomplete emptying
    • Passing mucus
      • up to 50% pts with IBS describe passing mucus
    • Bloating
diagnosis cont d1
Diagnosis (cont’d)
  • Subtypes of IBS
    • Diarrhea predominant IBS
      • Hard/lumpy stools < 25%
      • Loose/watery stools >25%
    • Constipation predominant IBS
      • Loose/watery stools <25%
      • Hard/lumpy stools >5%
    • Mixed IBS
      • Hard/lumpy stools >25%
      • Loose/watery stools >25%
diagnosis cont d2
Diagnosis (cont’d)
  • Alarm symptoms
    • Rectal bleeding
    • Nocturnal or progressive abdominal pain
    • Weight loss
    • Abnormal labs
    • Age >50
    • FHx colon CA / IBD
  • Should get further investigations / colonoscopy
  • Labs – CBC, lytes – should all be normal
  • Celiac screen
    • Meta-analysis (Ford, Archive Int Med, 2009)
      • Celiac disease 4x more common in patients with IBS than in controls
    • Should check celiac screen on all patients with IBS
  • Stool cultures if diarrhea predominant IBS
    • r/o Giardia
  • Visceral hypersensitivity
    • more sensitive to visceral stimuli
  • Abnormal gut motility
    • Increased/decreased gut transit time
    • Increased motility to various stimuli compared to controls
  • Psychosocial factors
  • Brain-Gut interaction / neuroendocrine dysfunction
  • Latent or potential Celiac disease
  • Infection and inflammation
    • Post-infectious IBS, altered gut flora
pharmacologic treatments
Pharmacologic treatments
  • Antidepressants
    • TCA’s and SSRI’s
  • Antispasmodic agents
    • Eg. Pinaverium – Dicetel
  • Loperamide – (Immodium)
  • Selective serotonin (5-HT4, 5-HT3)reuptake inhibitors
    • Eg. alosetron, tegaserod
    • Ischemic colitis, CV events
  • Non-absorbable antibiotics (rifaximin)

Overall low patient satisfaction with pharmacologic treatments

  • 50% of patients with IBS turn to CAM therapies
diet and ibs
Diet and IBS
  • Lactose (dairy)
    • Lactose intolerance is common
    • Can aggravate IBS or cause Sx that are similar to IBS
    • Trial of 3 weeks dairy-free diet for all patients with IBS
diet and ibs1
Diet and IBS
  • Gluten sensitivity (without overt celiac disease)
    • Latent or potential celiac disease
    • “non-celiac gluten intolerance”
    • Biesiekierski et al., Am J Gastroenterol. 2011
      • Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 34 patients with IBS controlled on gluten-free diet
      • Re-introduction of gluten for 6 weeks significantly worsened Sx
    • Consider trial of gluten-free diet
diet and ibs2
Diet and IBS
  • Exclusion of gas-producing foods
    • Underlying visceral hyperalgesia
    • Exclusion of foods that increase gas production:
      • beans, cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage), celery, carrots, raisins, bananas, prunes
diet and ibs3
Diet and IBS
  • Carbohydrate malabsorption – “FODMAP’s”
      • Fermentable
      • Oligosaccharides
      • Disaccharides
      • Monosaccharides
      • And
      • Polyols
  • May lead to Sx of IBS, increased intestinal permeability and possibly inflammation


      • Fructans (wheat, onions, artichokes)
      • Galactans (legumes, cabbage, and brussel sprouts)
  • Disaccharides
      • Lactose (dairy)
  • Monosaccharides
      • Fructose (honey, watermelon, high fructose corn syrup)
  • Polyols (sugar alcohols)
      • Sorbitol (chewing gum)
      • Xylitol
      • Mannitol
      • Some studies restricting FODMAP’s have suggested benefit
      • Consider trial of low FODMAP’s diet
diet and ibs4
Diet and IBS
  • Food allergies
    • Role is unclear
    • No reliable method of testing for food allergies
diet and ibs cont d
Diet and IBS (cont’d)
  • Elimination diets
    • Empiric trial to systematically remove certain food allergens/sensitivities
    • “Sinister 7”
      • Cow’s milk, wheat, soy, corn, yeast, refined sugar, eggs
    • Can remove all 7 from diet x 14 days then systematically re-introduce every 72 hrs
    • Or remove one at a time and then reintroduce
botanicals and ibs
Botanicals and IBS
  • Several botanicals have been studied
  • Results limited by often small sample sizes and substantial placebo response
peppermint oil
Peppermint Oil
  • Anti-spasmodic – helps with cramping
  • Slows gut motility / transit time
  • Mechanism of action – smooth muscle relaxation via Ca-channel blockade
  • Useful for diarrhea-predominent IBS
peppermint oil1
Peppermint Oil
  • Meta-analysis (Ford, BMJ, 2008)
    • Peppermint oil effective in symptom relief in patients with IBS
    • NNT=2.5 for benefit with peppermint oil
  • 2009 American College of Gastroenterology recommendations for the treatment of IBS
    • Peppermint oil recommended for short-term relief of abdominal pain/discomfort in IBS
peppermint oil cont d
Peppermint Oil (cont’d)
  • Dose: enteric coated peppermint oil capsules
    • 0.2mL tid
  • S/E’s:
    • anal burning and heartburn
    • Take peppermint oil capsules with food
  • Worthwhile to try first in diarrhea predominant IBS
botanicals carminatives
Botanicals – Carminatives
  • Spices and herbs traditionally used for bloating and gas
  • 64% of patients with IBS complain of bloating
  • Also have other properties / secondary benefits
    • eg. antimicrobial properties, anxiolytic properties
carminatives secondary benefits
Carminatives – secondary benefits
  • Basil – anti-inflammatory
  • Caraway - slows GI transit time
  • Peppermint - slows GI transit time
  • Ginger – pro-kinetic, anti-emetic
  • Cinnamon – insulin resistance
  • Thyme - coughs, colds
  • Dill – lactagogue
  • Sage - hot flashes/sweating
  • Prokinetic and anti-emetic
  • Useful in IBS – constipation dominant
  • Useful for gas and bloating (carminative)
  • Also used as an anti-inflammatory (being studied for arthritis)
ginger cont d
Ginger (cont’d)
  • Dose:
    • dried powdered ginger
    • 500mg dried ginger root – 1 tab tid before meals
    • safe in pregnancy
  • NOT concentrated extracts of ginger
    • Extracts used as anti-inflammatory
    • Can cause heartburn and GI distress at high doses and safety not confirmed in pregnancy
iberogast stw 5
Iberogast (STW 5)
  • Blend of 9 herbs / plant extracts
    • Candytuft
    • Chamomile
    • Peppermint
    • Caraway
    • Licorice root
    • Lemon balm
    • Celandine
    • Milk thistle
    • Angelica
  • Study (Madisch, 2004) – double-blind placebo RC T
    • Showed effective in relieving IBS symptoms
  • Commonly recommended
  • May exacerbate symptoms in some patients
  • Fiber supplements (eg. psyllium) may be beneficial for constipation predominant IBS
    • Main side effect is bloating and gas
    • Take with lots of water, titrate slowly
  • Living organisms that, upon digestion in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond those of basic nutrition
  • Some commonly studied probiotics
    • Lactobacillus
    • Bifidobacterium
    • Saccharomycesboulardii
probiotics cont d
Probiotics (cont’d)
  • May be a role of altered gut flora in the pathogenesis of IBS
  • Probiotics help balance the gut flora
  • McFarland, 2008
    • Meta-analysis of 23 studies showed improvement of global IBS symptoms and abdominal pain
    • warrents further study
  • TuZen
    • Lactobacillus plantarum 299v
acupuncture and ibs
Acupuncture and IBS
  • Manheimer et al., April 2012, (Am J of Gastroenterology)
    • Systematic review and meta-analysis of Acupuncture and IBS
      • 17 RCT’s (N=1806)
      • Acupuncture vs. sham acupuncture (5 trials) – no difference
      • Acupuncture more effective than pharmacologic therapy (5 trials)
      • Acupuncture equal effectiveness to bifidobacterium (2 trials) or psycotherapy (1 trial)
      • Addition of acupuncture to standard medical care more effective than standard medical care alone (2 trials)
mind body and ibs
Mind-body and IBS
  • Dysregulation of the brain-gut axis
  • Visceral hypersensitivity
  • Stress plays a role in onset and ongoing IBS symptoms
  • Mind-body approaches have been investigated in management of IBS Sx
    • Meditation, relaxation, hypnotherapy, CBT
mind body cont d
Mind-body (cont’d)
  • Yoga and relaxation
    • Useful to recommend in patients with IBS, especially if they are “stressed”
    • 2 studies show benefit of yoga on IBS Sx
      • (Kuttner 2006, Taneja 2006)
  • CBT
    • Shown to be effective in IBS (Drossman, 2003)
mind body cont d1
Mind-Body (cont’d)
  • Hypnotherapy
    • Multiple studies have shown benefit in IBS
    • an intentional induction of the hypnotic state that is achieved by various methods including deep relaxation, mental imagery or more subtle indirect techniques
    • Good evidence to show that hypnotherapy is effective for treatment of IBS and has long term benefits (Gonsalkorale 2002, 2003)

2009 American College of Gastroenterology recommendations for the treatment of IBS

    • Psychological therapies, including cognitive therapy, dynamic psycotherapy and hypnotherapy more effective than usual care in relieving global symptoms of IBS
mind body cont d2
Mind-body (cont’d)
  • Placebo effect and IBS
    • Kaptchuk et al 2010
    • Placebos without deception: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
      • - 70 patients with IBS, 3 wk RCT
      • "placebo pills made of an inert substance, like sugar pills, that have been shown in clinical studies to produce significant improvement in IBS symptoms through mind-body self-healing processes“ vs. no-treatment controls with the same quality of interaction with providers
      • Statistically significant improvement in global improvement scores, reduced symptom severity and adequate relief scores
      • “Placebos administered without deception may be an effective treatment for IBS”
  • Increased physical activity may help with symptoms of IBS
  • RCT (Johannesson, 2011)showed improved GI symptoms in patients with IBS
    • 20-60min moderate to vigorous activity 3-5x/week
  • Should be recommended to all patients with IBS
    • good for general health as well
  • Rule out celiac disease
  • Trial no dairy x 3 weeks
  • Trial gluten-free diet x 3 weeks
  • Can try elimination diet or low FODMAP’s diet if motivated
  • Trial of peppermint oil if diarrhea-dominant or mixed
  • Trial of probiotics
  • Trial of acupuncture
  • Recommend exercise to all patients
  • Recommend trial of yoga, CBT, hypnotherapy
  • Borrelli et al., Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomitting. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr; 105(4): 849-56.
  • Drossman et al., Cognitive-behavioral therapy versus education and desipramine vs. placebo for moderate to severe functional bowel disorder. Gastroenterology. 2003 Jul;125(1):19-31.
  • Johannesson et al., Physical activity improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 May; 106(5):915-22.
  • Kaptchuk et al., Placebos without deception: A Randomized controlled trial in Irritable Bowel Syndrome., PLoS One 2010 Dec 22;5(12)
  • Kuttner et al., A randomized trial of yoga for adolescents with irritable bowel syndrome. Pain Res Manag. 2006 Winter;11(4):217-23
  • Manheimer et al., Acupuncture for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J of Gastroenterology, 10 April 2012
  • Masdisch et al,. Treatment of Irritable bowel syndrome with herbal preparations: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial. Ailment PharmacolTher., 2004 Feb 1; 19(3):271-9.
  • McFarland LV, Dublin S. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol2008; 14(17):2650-61.
  • Ford et al., Effect of Fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Nov 13; 337:a2313
  • Ford et al., Yield of diagnostic tests for celiac disease in individuals with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(7):651.
  • Gonsalkorale et al. Hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome: a large-scale audit of a clinical service with examination of factors influencing responsiveness. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Apr;97(4):954-61.
  • Gonsalkorale et al. Long term benefits of hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 2003 Nov;52(11): 1623-9.
  • Manheimer et al., Acupuncture for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 10 April 2012
  • Ryan et al., Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer. 2011 Aug 5.
  • aneja et al., Yogic versus conventional treatment in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized control study. ApplPsychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Mar;29(1):19-33.
  • Wu et al., Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur J GastroenterolHepatol. 2008 May; 20(5):436-40.
  • University of Arizona Integrative Medicine Fellowship – Integrative Gastroenterology - Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
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