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Communication by objective approach. Learning Objectives. Plan a message using the Communication-by-objectives approach. Compose a message draft following the Communication-by-objectives approach.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Plan a message using the Communication-by-objectives approach.
  • Compose a message draft following the Communication-by-objectives approach.
  • Identify the activities involved in complete message, the third step of the Communication-by-objective approach.
plan a message
Plan a message
  • Identify the objective
  • Visualize the audience
  • Gather supporting information
  • Organize the information
identify the objective
Identify the objective
  • State the objective of your message simply, clearly, and concisely.
  • The objective will be to persuade, to inform, to inquire.
visualize the audience
Visualize the audience
  • Create a mental picture of your audience.
  • Answer: Who is my audience?

What characteristics do I know about them?

When will the audience receive the message?

Where will the audience be?

Why will the audience be interested?

gather supporting information
Gather supporting information
  • Generate and choose ideas that relate to the message objective.
  • Check sources such as documents, people, libraries, and the internet.
generate ideas
Generate ideas
  • Brainstorming: Record all ideas that come to mind. Select the ones most relevant to objective.
  • Nonstop writing: write something, anything, to maintain a flow of ideas.
  • Bubble writing: Write your objective inside a large bubble at the center of the page. Write main ideas that relate to the objective in smaller connected bubbles.
select ideas
Select ideas
  • Carefully evaluate and select the pertinent ideas from among those generated.
organize the information
Organize the information
  • After gathering, evaluating, and choosing information to support ideas, select an organizational pattern.
direct and indirect patterns of organization
Direct and Indirect patterns of organization
  • The direct pattern of organization is appropriate for messages containing good, neutral, or routine news. Two types of messages often use the direct pattern.

Messages that say yes to a receiver’s request.

Messages that inquire about products or services.

The indirect pattern of organization is appropriate when a message contains unfavorable news, such as denial of a receiver’s request.
traditional and indented outline formats
Traditional and indented outline formats
  • Outline: lists key terms that represent the ideas for your message.
  • The length and detail of each outline are determined by the complexity of the message –the more complex the message, the longer the outline.
traditional outline format
Traditional outline format
  • The traditional outline format uses indented numbers, letters, and spacing to identify message parts.
  • Moves from general ideas to specific ideas.
traditional outline format direct pattern
Traditional outline format- Direct pattern
  • Organization:

I. Good, Neutral, or routine news

II. General Information Supporting 1

A. Specific information supporting 11

1. Details supporting 11 A

2. Details supporting 11A

B. Specific information supporting 11

111. Friendly ending

the indented outline format indirect pattern
The indented outline formatIndirect pattern
  • Neutral Statement
  • General Information leading to unfavorable news

Specific supporting information

Details supporting specific


Unfavorable news

General information to Neutralize

unfavorable news

Friendly ending

2 compose a draft
2. Compose a draft
  • Start with an outline and expand ideas.
  • Choose words that reflect the six C’s of effective messages
  • Construct sentences: A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.
  • Assemble paragraphs: A paragraph consists of a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence that relate to one idea.
  • Placement: Receivers notice and remember information placed at a start or the end of a message.
  • Sequence sentences within a paragraph to help the receiver understand the order of the information.
  • Time : refers to order of occurrence
  • Logic organizes information in reasoned, ordered patterns.
  • Cause and effect explains why something happened and then describes the result of occurrence.
  • Comparison and contrast shows the similarities between objects, ideas, or situations.
choose paragraph locations
Choose paragraph locations
  • The opening and the closing are the most important parts of a message.

At the opening, the receiver decides whether to continue reading or listening.

  • The middle of the message contains the explanation that supports the message objective and promotes the main idea.
  • The closing of a message is a important as the opening.
3 complete a message
3. Complete a message
  • Proofread: Check message for correctness in content, mechanics, format, meaning.
  • Edit: Read draft carefully. Analyze. Make sure you have clearly stated how the reader will benefit
  • Revise: make changes
  • Finalize. Prepare the final message in an acceptable format.
  • The Communication-by-objective approach is a whole-into-parts method that breaks the message development process into three major steps. Each CBO includes four specific activities.
  • Plan a message
  • Compose a draft
  • Complete a message