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  1. Using technology to improve quality in education – 2Ian Johnson UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  2. OVERVIEW Research and teaching quality Journals as learning resources Growth and changes in journal publishing The Open Access movement Challenges for Open Access publishers UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  3. RESEARCH AND TEACHING QUALITY • At the leading edge of knowledge • Specialist expertise • Confidence in the classroom UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  4. RESEARCH AND SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION • Researchers seek • Impact • Recognition • Prestige • Honours UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  5. ACADEMIC REWARD SYSTEM • Tenure and promotion • Based on research and publication UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  6. PRESSURE TO PUBLISH UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  7. GROWTH IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING • Scientific papers • 1870s – c.800 pa papers in mathematics • 2000 – c.50,000 papers in mathematics • Scientific journals • 1800s – c.90 journals published • 2000 – c.16,000 journals published in English (c.16,000 Spanish; 8,000 Chinese) • Scientific publishers • 1800s - Universities and societies • C20- Commercial companies UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  8. THE AUDIENCE FOR PRINTED SCHOLARLY JOURNALS • Journals are an essential tool for research and teaching but • Increases in the number of titles, and • Fixed or declining library budgets resulted in • Increases in prices • Fewer sales • Fewer readers • Less read UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  9. CONCERNS OF THE RESEARCH COMMUNITY AND LIBRARIANS • Researchers could not easily access all publications in their field • Libraries could not purchase all titles required by academics UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  10. CHALLENGES FOR LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCHERS (1) • Institutionally funded publication • No incentive for • Quality control • Regular publication • Improving distribution UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  11. ACCESS TO LATIN AMERICAN PRINTED JOURNALS • CLASE - Latin American Citations in Social Sciences and Humanities -http://www.dgbiblio.unam.mx/clase.html • INFOBILA (Library and Information sciences) - http://infocuib.laborales.unam.mx/~ibt/infoweb.html UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  12. CONSEQUENCES (1) • Not included in international indexing services • Incomplete collections • Journal contents little known • Journals not highly regarded UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  13. CHALLENGES FOR LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCHERS (2) • Pressure to publish in English in journals indexed by ISI • Linguistic isolation UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  14. CONSEQUENCES (2) • Best researchers may not publish in Latin American journals • Latin American research and scholarship is not highly visible • Awareness of new developments is inhibited • Teachers cannot use journals to keep students up to date • Innovation and development is inhibited UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  15. Questions?Comments? UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  16. ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING – A NEW QUALITY RESOURCE • Low distribution costs • High investment costs • Added value features • Cross file searching • e-tables of contents • Citation linking • Digitising older material UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  17. CONSOLIDATION IN THE INDUSTRY • Global market share of English-language scientific journals 28.2% - Reed Elsevier 14.1% - Springer Science (incl. Kluwer) 9.5% - Thomson ISI 7.5% - John Wiley/Blackwell Publishing 3.6% - Informa Taylor and Francis 3.6% - American Chemical Society 66.4% UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  18. NEW BUSINESS MODELS • The ‘big deal’ • A package of journal titles • Limits on selection • Prices based on print subscriptions UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  19. GROWTH AND CHANGES IN JOURNAL PUBLISHING • Welcomed by researchers • Significant increase in journal availability and use • Resented by librarians • Publishers’ unfamiliar with customer care • A cause for concern for universities and research funders UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  20. EMERGING ALTERNATIVES • Librarians trying to negotiate reduced prices • Researchers trying to encourage e-publishing UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  21. OPEN ARCHIVES MOVEMENT • Documentation centres in 1960s • 1991 : creation of the arXiv.org physics archive by Paul Ginsparg • 1997 : creation of the CogPrints archive by Stevan Harnad • 1999 - 2001 : creation of the Open Archive Initiative (OAI) • http://www.openarchives.org/ UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  22. E-JOURNALS ? • e-publishing • Growing number of e-journals publishers • SciELO – Scientific Electronic Library Online, 1997 • CLACSO Digital Library, 1998 • AJOL – African Journals Online, 1998 • Reorganisation of Chinese journal publishing, 1999-2002 UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  23. THE OPEN ACCESS MOVEMENT • Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), February 2002 http://www.soros.org/openaccess/index.shtml UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  24. GREEN AND GOLD • BOAI recommended self-archiving • ‘Green’ Open Access: a journal allows or encourages the simultaneous deposit of peer-reviewed published papers in publicly accessible online repositories • BOAI encouraged open access journal publishing • ‘Gold’ Open Access: a journal charges nothing to readers for access to the electronic versions of articles published in it UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  25. GROWING ENDORSEMENT OF OPEN ACCESS • Bethesda Statement, April 2003 • Berlin Declaration, October 2003 • OECD Declaration, January 2004 • IFLA Statement, April 2004 • Scottish Declaration, October 2004 • Rio Framework for Open Science, June 2006 UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  26. OPEN ACCESS JOURNAL MODELS • Journals supported by • Author payment per article • Institutional or consortial membership • Free publication for those who cannot afford it • Start-up grants • Commercial income – advertising and sponsorship • Voluntary activity and involuntary support • Hybrid journals • Delayed Open Access UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  27. ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING IN LATIN AMERICA • Growing investment by commercial publishing companies • Grupo Oceano • EBSCOHost, Thomson Learning, Dialnet, ProQuest • Continued pattern of institutional subsidy UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  28. SciELO – Scientific Electronic Library Online • 550 journals from 8 countries (from 15,000+) • Selection • Regular publication • Peer reviewed • Financial contribution to SciELO • Back issues to 1997? • Colombia in SciELO • http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php/script_sci_home/lng_es/nrm_iso UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  29. OTHER LATIN AMERICAN e-JOURNALS • Library and Information Science • ALFA Project REVISTAS • c.300 journals published in Spanish and Portuguese • c.220 from Latin America • Not all currently published • c.90 available online • c.50 from Latin America UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  30. AGGREGATORS OF OPEN ACCESS e-JOURNALS • Europe – DOAJ, EZB • Ibero-America – SciELO, RedALyC, LivRe, REI, RACO UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  31. AGGREGATOR COVERAGE OF OPEN ACCESS LIS e-JOURNALS UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  32. Open Journal Systems/SEER • http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/ UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008

  33. Questions?Comments? UdR, Bogota, agosto 2008