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Exploring Technology, Education, and Interaction with Classroom Presenter

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  1. Education Technology Exploring Technology, Education, and Interaction with Classroom Presenter Steven A. Wolfman Computer Science & Engineering University of Washington http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/wolf/work/

  2. Mediating Artifact An external object or structure which participates in cognition by shaping or supporting thought. Saljo: the significance of new technologies does not lie in their enhancing learning in a linear sense… the important point … is that they … transform basic features of how people communicate knowledge and skills … and how information is organised. In this sense, new media may imply that learning will become different. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  3. Research History UNIVERSITY LEVEL Distance & Large Class Studies [SIGCSE ’02] Presenter [SIGCSE ’04] ClassroomFeedbackSystem Ink Study [CSCL ’03] [CHI ’04] Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns Structured Interaction Presentation system [CHI ’03] Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  4. Outline Distance & Large Class Studies Presenter ClassroomFeedbackSystem Ink Study Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns Structured Interaction Presentation system Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  5. Outline Distance & Large Class Studies Presenter ClassroomFeedbackSystem InkStudy Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns Structured Interaction Presentation system Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  6. Large class challenges • Maintaining attention • Communication/Feedback • Spontaneous discussion • Management of class activities Is PowerPoint evil? Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  7. Good Organization Preparation Sharing Easier execution … Evil Passivity Simplification of ideas [Tufte] Inflexibility … PowerPoint Good and Evil Preliminary studies indicated instructors needed: flexibility and contextual writing PETTT studies suggest students like: organization and preparation. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  8. Slides as Mediating Artifact • In the classroom: • facilitate communication • structure discussion • Outside the classroom: • used as memory aid • used as study guide • Across terms • reify course knowledge Persistent context for communication! Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  9. Classroom Presenter Goals REFER TO LODGE • Maintain strengths of slides (organization, preparation, sharing, etc.) • Mitigate weaknesses of slides(inflexibility, immobility, passivity, etc.) • Secure classroom adoption • Explore potential of computer-projected slides as mediating artifact • Prepare for more ambitious interventions Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  10. Presenter Strategy • Use TabletPC affordances (high-quality ink, wireless, portability) • Focus on instructor first(single, necessary point of adoption) • Distributed architecture & flexible rendering to support extensions Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  11. Technological affordances: High-quality ink, wireless comm., portability Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  12. Classroom Deployments Spring ’02–Summer ’03 studies: • 21 courses • 15 instructors • 1,000+ students • Intro to Master’s across CSE • University of Washington, U. of Virginia, & U. of San Diego Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  13. Student/Instructor Reaction • Positive comments and repeat use by instructors • Instructor survey: N = 9 • Student surveys: N = 479 Omits all project participants. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  14. Instructor innovations and suggestions • “Donahue” Tablet • Instructor notes • Improved navigation (filmstrip and previews) • Collective brainstorming Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  15. Instructor view with notes Displayed view without notes

  16. Slide previews with navigation Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  17. Conclusions • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research To summarize all of that to one bullet point… Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  18. Ink Study Distance & Large Class Studies Presenter ClassroomFeedbackSystem InkStudy Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns Structured Interaction Presentation system Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  19. Expected Use SmallTalk, Self, Cecil, Java, C# Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  20. Actual Use Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  21. Study Motivators • Unexpected style of ink use • Feature discovery issues • Unexpected feature use • UI problems AM Marginal diags w/out min Hygenic erase Unintended scrolling Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  22. Ink Study Interpretive analysis [Erickson] of 3 courses: • Distance courses (, A/V and ink archives) • “Slideware-style” • Experienced instructors Hello world! is 14 strokes Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  23. Prevalence of Attentional Marks Segmented strokes from six hours of lecture into coherent episodes and coded into four categories: Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction Will also briefly come back to this.

  24. Understanding Attentional Marks Properties: • brief, simple markings • occur with speech • augment meaning of speech • ad hoc form Is there a linguistic context in which to understand these marks? Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  25. Hand Gestures Hand gestures [McNeill]: • are synchronous w/speech • are co-expressive w/speech • are global-synthetic/non-combinatoric • lack standard of form Attentional marks share these properties. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  26. Gesture Types: Iconic First of five gesture types direct representations Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  27. Gesture Types: Metaphoric abstract representations Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  28. Gesture Types: Deictic & Cohesive Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  29. Gesture Types: Beats Insight into “other”? BRIEF & emphasize framework helps understanding. SEGUE: also helps understand breakdowns… Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  30. Persistent Representation vs. Ephemeral Meaning Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  31. Persistent Representation vs. Ephemeral Meaning Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  32. Design Recommendations • Non-homogenous color to distinguish strokes • Age cues to indicate co-occurrence and preserve ordering • Incremental rendering for process information Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  33. Conclusions • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research • Identified important patterns of ink use and framework for understanding ink use Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  34. Structured Interaction Presentation Distance & Large Class Studies Presenter ClassroomFeedbackSystem InkStudy Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns Structured Interaction Presentation system Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  35. Richer Mediating Artifact CSCL has been “a move from ‘sage-on-the-stage’ … to ‘guide-by-the-side’”. New CSCL systems will be “much more like the ‘conductor-of-performances’ for an orchestra: students … [will contribute] to an overall performance.” [Roschelle & Pea] Leader-of-theater? Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  36. Goals of Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP) • Mitigate more PowerPoint evil • Support intuitive and flexible design • Facilitate interaction in class • Enable new kinds of interaction Support the design, use, sharing, and reflection on the “orchestra’s” score. Passivity, simplification “transitions”, apprehension e.g., data reuse, intentional grouping, DHC Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  37. “Mock” class using 24 CS students, staff, and faculty NOT on CS 50 minutes long Took ~1 hour to convert static => interactive Designed INSIDE PPT USING SIP, etc. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  38. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  39. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  40. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  41. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  42. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  43. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  44. Try Your Hand • Are these on the same or distinct topics? • Which would you rather discuss? Of those who died from receiving the vaccine, what percentage had compro-mised immune systems? What are the death rates for specific groups who received this vaccine? Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  45. Group Members Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  46. Group “Winners” Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  47. SIP Architecture Presenter + SIP exercises Presentation design environment Instructor view SQL back-end for reliability/archival reuse. Presentation/Widgetdatabase Viewer scrnsht Viewer scrnsht Interactive widget designenvironment Viewer scrnsht Student views Pluggable widgets. Support interactive version of PPT vision. Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  48. Conclusions • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research • Identified important patterns of ink use and framework for understanding ink use • Designed system for interaction support • Developed new interaction styles Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  49. Conclusions • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research • Identified important patterns of ink use and framework for understanding ink use • Designed system for interaction support • Developed new interaction styles • Designed feedback system • Discovered new patterns of interaction Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

  50. Future Directions Distance & Large Class Studies Presenter ClassroomFeedbackSystem InkStudy Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns Structured Interaction Presentation system Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction