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Education Quality

Education Quality

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Education Quality

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  1. Education Quality A Global Report The State of Education Series March 2013

  2. Summary This presentation includes analysis of: • Pupil-Teacher Ratios (PTRs) • Repetition rates • Primary Completion Rates (PCR) • Learning Outcomes • Youth Literacy Rates • Adult Literacy Rates • Gender/Income/Location disparities

  3. Acronym Guide

  4. Summary of Analysis • Primary Pupil-Teacher Ratios (PTRs) have declined from 26 pupils per teacher in 1999 to 24 in 2011. SSA and SAS have the highest PTRs (>40). • Repetition ratesin primary schools have decreased from 5.3% in 1999 to 4.8% in 2011. LAC and SSA have higher repetition rates than other regions, and males have higher repetition rates than females. • Primary Completion Rates (PCRs) are highest in EAP, LAC and ECA, which all havePCRs above 95%. The global PCR lags behind at 90.3%. Low income is the greatest barrier to primary and secondary completion. • Adult and youth literacy rates have been improving over time, but around 10% of youth and 16% of adults are not literate. SAS and MNA have both improved literacy levels greatly over time.

  5. Pupil-Teacher Ratios

  6. Which regions have higher pre-primary pupil-teacher ratios? • South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have higher pre-primary pupil-teacher ratios. • Globally, pre-primary pupil-teacher ratios (PTRs) have remained steady since 1999 at around 20 pupils per teacher. • ECA has the fewest students per teacher: PTRs ranged from 8 to 10 students over time. • South Asia had the highest PTRs as of 2007 at 40 students per teacher. The next closest region was SSA at around 27 students per teacher in 2011.

  7. Which countries have the highest pre-primary pupil-teacher ratios? • These countries have between 35 and 57 pre-primary students per teacher. • Eight of the 10 countries are in SSA. • Less than 11% of children are enrolled in pre-primary education in 5 of these countries. • There are 22 countries with pre-primary PTRs less than 10. Most are in ECA or are high income countries.

  8. Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Pre-Primary (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  9. Which regions have higher primary pupil-teacher ratios? • Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have the highest primary pupil-teacher ratios. • Globally, primary pupil-teacher ratios (PTRs) have declined from 26 pupils per teacher in 1999 to 24 in 2011. • SSA has the highest PTR in 2011 at 43 pupils per teacher. SAS also has a high PTR in 2009 at 40. • All other regions have PTRs less than 23 with declining PTRs over time. • EAP has the fewest students per teacher in 2011 (18) followed by ECA at 19.

  10. Which countries have the highest primary pupil-teacher ratios? • These countries have between 51 and 81 primary students per teacher. • 26 countries have more than 40 primary pupils per teacher. All of these countries are in SSAexcept Cambodia. • There are 10 countries with primary PTRs less than 10 and 46 countries with PTRs less than 15. Most are high income countries.

  11. Which countries have decreased primary pupil-teacher ratios the most? • These countries have decreased their primary pupil-teacher ratios by 12 to 18 pupils per teacher over time. • The most current PTR for all of these countries except Cameroon and Ethiopia is less than 35 students per teacher. • Despite great improvement, Ethiopia still has around 55 pupils per teacher.

  12. Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Primary (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  13. Which regions have higher secondary pupil-teacher ratios? • Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have the highest secondarypupil-teacher ratios. • Globally, secondary pupil-teacher ratios (PTRs) have decreased slightly from 18 pupils per teacher in 1999 to 17 in 2011. • SAS has the highest PTR in 2011 at 26.4 pupils per teacher. This is a sharp decrease from 34 in 1999. • SSA’s PTR is also consistently higher than most regions over time. • ECA has the fewest students per teacher in 2011 (11.7) followed by EAP at 16 and LAC at 17.

  14. Which countries have the highest secondary pupil-teacher ratios? • These countries have between 35 and 67 secondary pupils per teacher. • Eight of the 10 countries are in SSA. • Despite larger class sizes, less than 15% of children are enrolled in secondary education in CAR, Angola, and Niger. • There are 34 countries with PTRs less than 10. Most are high income countries.

  15. Which countries have decreased secondary pupil-teacher ratios the most? • These countries have decreased their secondary pupil-teacher ratios by 7 to 18 students/teacher over time. • After the large decreases, these countries have current PTRs between 14 and 25 pupils per teacher except Malawi (42) and Eritrea (40). • 5 countries increased PTRs by more than 10 pupils per teacher over time: Nepal, Tanzania, Solomon Islands, Angola, and Guinea-Bissau.

  16. Pupil-Teacher Ratio. Secondary (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  17. Repetition Rates

  18. Which regions have the highest primary repetition rates? • Levels of primary repetition are higher in LAC and SSA and lower in ECA and EAP. • Globally, the percent of repeaters in primary schools has decreased from 5.3% in 1999 to 4.8% in 2011. • Repetition rates have consistently been lowest in ECA and EAP (less than 2.3% over time). • SSA and LAC have had the highest levels of repetition over time, but both regions improved from around 12% to around 8% over time. • SAS is the only region with a higher current repetition rate (4.9% in 2009) than in 1999 (4.7%).

  19. Which countries have the highest repetition rates in primary? • One thirdof students repeat in Burundi and almost ¼ repeat in Comoros. • All countries on the list are in SSA. 17 out of the top 20 are also in SSA. Timor-Leste, Iraq, and Suriname are the exceptions. • Six countries in the list have decreased repetition over time: Madagascar, Congo, Lesotho, Togo, Chad, and Comoros. • Burundi’s repetition rate has increased by almost 10 percentage points over time from 26.3% in 2002 to 36.2% in 2011.

  20. Which countries have decreased primary repetition rates the most? • These countries have decreased their primary repetition rates by 8 to 22 percentage points over time. • 9 of 10 countries are in SSA. • 6 countries have more than halved their repetition rates. • Despite great improvement, 7 of the countries have current repetition rates higher than 10%.

  21. Primary Repetition Rate (%) (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  22. Do females repeat more than males in primary schools? • Males repeat more than females in all regions except ECA. • Globally, there is less than half a percentage point difference between male/female repetition rates. Males repeat slightly more than females. • Males also repeat more than females in all regions except for ECA. • The greatest gender disparity is in MNA at 2.5 percentage points. • In SSA, there is almost no difference in repetition rates between males and females.

  23. Which countries have the highest repetition rates in secondary? • 20 to 26% of all secondary students are repeaters in these countries. • 9 of 10 countries are in SSA. • Togo’s repetition rates has increased by 6 percentage points over time. Benin, Chad, and Burkina Faso also had worsening repetition rates. • Burundi improved its repetition rate by over 12 percentage points.

  24. Which countries have decreased secondary repetition rates the most? • These countries have decreased their secondary repetition rates by 7 to 12 percentage points over time. • 4 countries have more than halved their repetition rates. • Despite great improvement, 6 of the 10 countries have current repetition rates higher than 10%.

  25. Secondary Repetition Rate (%) (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  26. Completion

  27. Which regions have higher primary completion rates? • Primary Completion Rates have been increasing in all regions since 1999. • 90.3% of primary school age students completed primary school in 2011. This is a 9.3 percentage point increase since 1999. • All regions have improved their primary completion rates (PCR) over time. • SAS had the largest increase at 23.3 percentage points, but still lags behind other regions with 88% of students completing primary in 2011. (continued on next slide)

  28. Which regions have higher primary completion rates? (continued) • Primary Completion Rates have been increasing in all regions since 1999. • SSA also improved greatly over time (17.8 percentage points) but lagged far behind other regions in 2011 with a 70% PCR. • In 2011, LAC had the highest share of primary school age students completing primary school at 101.6%. PCRs over 100% are typically due to over/under age students entering the last grade of primary or repetition.

  29. Which countries have the lowest primary completion rates? • Less than half of primary school age children complete primary school in the top 7 countries. • 9 of 10 countries are in SSA. • All the countries on the list have increased their PCRs over time except Uganda and Equatorial Guinea. • Niger and Mali have increased their PCRs the most over time – 25 and 21 percentage points respectively.

  30. Which countries have increased primary completion rates the most? • These countries have increased their primary completion rates by 31 to 43 percentage points over time. • 5 countries have more than doubled their primary completion rates. • Despite great improvement, 7 of the 10 countries have current primary completion rates less than 75%.

  31. Primary Completion Rate (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  32. Are more boys completing primary school than girls? • Globally and in most regions, more males complete primary school than females. • Globally, more males are completing primary school than females. The difference between male/female PCRs has shrunk from 6 percentage points in 1999 to 1.8 in 2011. • In most regions, more males complete primary than females, but in LAC and EAP, the reverse is true. • EAP's female PCR was 2.4 percentage points higher than the male PCR. LAC’s was 0.7 percentage points higher for females. (continued on next slide)

  33. Are more boys completing primary school than girls? (continued) • Globally and in most regions, more males complete primary school than females. • SSA has the largest gender disparity in PCRs with 74% of boys completing vs. 67% of girls in 2011. • MNA also has a large gender disparity at 6 percentage points difference between the genders. • SAS had a large gender disparity in 1999 (15 percentage points) but decreased the difference to 2.7 percentage points in 2010.

  34. Primary Completion Rate. Female (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  35. Gender Parity Index for Primary Completion Rate(2006-2012) Male Bias Gender Parity Female Bias Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  36. Are there gender, income or location disparities in primary completion rates? • Low income is the greatest source of disparity in primary completion rates in all regions except ECA. • Gender disparities exist in all regions in PCRs, but they are surpassed by income disparities in all regions except for ECA. • The greatest disparities exist in SSA, where there is a 55 percentage point difference between the PCRs of top and bottom quintile students. This compares to a 33 point difference between urban and rural, and 9 point between genders. • In EAP and ECA, more rural students complete primary school than urban students.2

  37. Are there gender, income or location disparities in secondary completion rates? • Income is the greatest source of disparity in secondary completion rates in all regions. • Low income is the greatest source of disparity in secondary completion rates in all regions. The disparity is greatest in SAS (60 percentage points), LAC (44), and SSA (40). • Rural residence is a source of disparity in SAS (29 percentage point disparity), LAC (25), and SSA (22). • A slightly higher percentage of females complete secondary in ECA and LAC, but the opposite is true in other regions.2

  38. Lower Secondary Graduation Rate (2006-2012) Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013 Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. The maps are for reference only.

  39. Learning Outcomes

  40. Where are the greatest income disparities in PISA math scores? • Richer students have higher scores in all but 3 countries – Iceland, Norway, and Azerbaijan. The greatest income disparities are in 5 Latin American countries – Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Colombia.

  41. How do reading levels vary between African countries? • Mean Reading Scores vary greatly across Francophone African countries. • 5th graders in Gabon (61.4) and Cameroon (53.4) scored the highest on the French language assessment. • Gabon’s mean score almost doubled Benin and Chad’s scores (31.6 and 31.7 respectively). • Only three countries scored higher than 40 on a 100 point scale. • Source: Programme d'Analyse des Systèmes Educatifs de la CONFEMEN in EdStats, August 2011.

  42. How do reading levels vary between African countries? • Mean reading scores of 6th grade students vary greatlybetween Anglophone African countries. • Tanzania, Seychelles, and Mauritius had the highest reading scores in 2007. • Mauritius and Tanzania both improved their scores, but Seychelles’ score was lower than in 2000. • Some countries have large disparities between genders, but in these cases, females have higher scores than males (Seychelles, Mauritius and Botswana). • Malawi and Zambia have had the lowest scores over time. • Source: Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) in EdStats, August 2011; Note: Zimbabwe 2000 is 1995 figure.

  43. How do reading scores vary between income groups in African countries? • Poorer students have lower mean reading scores in all Anglophone African countries. • In all SACMEQ countries, students from the lowest income quintile have lower reading scores than students in the highest income quintile, but the scale of income disparity varies greatly. • South Africa has the largest disparity between richest and poorest followed by Namibia. • Lesotho, Mozambique, and Malawi seem to have the less of a disparity between income groups in reading scores.

  44. Have LAC countries reached gender parity in reading levels? • Difference between Male/Female Mean Scores on the 6th Grade Reading Assessment (2006) • El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Peru, Guatemala, and Colombia are within 5 percentage points of gender parity. Female scores are higher than male scores in these countries. • Uruguay has the largest difference between male/female reading scores with a19.6 percentage point male bias. • Panama (15.9), Brazil (15.7), Cuba (15.2), and the Dominican Rep. (15.1) also have large male biases. • Source: Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECE SERCE) in StatPlanet, August 2011

  45. Does rural/urban residence impact 6th grade reading levels in LAC? • Difference between Urban/Rural Mean Scores on the 6th Grade Reading Assessment (2006) • In all countries, mean scores for rural students are lower than for urban students. • The greatest location disparity is in Peru (79) followed by Mexico (58). • Cuba has the smallest disparity between rural/urban areas (13) followed by Nicaragua (21). • The scale of disparity between urban/rural scores is much higher than the disparity between male/female scores. • Source: Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECE SERCE) in StatPlanet, August 2011

  46. Youth Literacy

  47. Have youth literacy rates improved over time? • Youth literacy rates have been increasing in all regions over time. • Global youth literacy rates have improved from 83.3% (1985-2004) to 89.6% (2005-2010) or 6.3 percentage points. • Still, around 10% of youth emerge from education systems around the world without basic literacy skills. • All regions showed improvement in youth literacy rates over time. • SAS showed the most dramatic improvement from 58% to 79.5% -- a 21 percentage point improvement. (continued on next slide)

  48. Have youth literacy rates improved over time? (continued) • Youth literacy rates have been increasing in all regions over time. • ECA has consistently had the highest youth literacy rate ranging from 98-99%. • Over time, EAP has almost caught up to ECA’s high youth literacy levels and LAC trails closely behind. More than 97% of youth are literate in these regions. • More 25% of youth are illiterate in SSA, but this is a 6 percentage point improvement over 1985-1995.

  49. Which countries have the lowest youth literacy rates? • Less than half of youth are literate in Burkina Faso, Mali and Chad. • All of the countries with the lowest literacy rates are in SSA. • Of the 142 countries with data, 22 countries have youth literacy rates less than 75%. All are in SSA except for Pakistan, Haiti, and Papua New Guinea. • 89countries have youth literacy rates higher than 95%.

  50. Which countries have increased youth literacy rates the most over time? • These countries have increased their youth literacy rates by 10 to 16percentage points over time. • 8 of 10 countries are in SSA. • Despite great improvement, only 4 of 10 countries have youth literacy rates higher than 75%. • Four countries’ rates worsened by more than 2% over the same period: Iraq, Madagascar, Haiti, and Congo, Dem. Rep.