Unit 3 pre civil war
1 / 20

Unit 3 – Pre Civil War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Unit 3 – Pre Civil War.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Unit 3 – Pre Civil War' - adonica

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Unit 3 pre civil war
Unit 3 – Pre Civil War

“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free. I don not expect the Union to be dissolved-I do not expect the house to fall-but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.”

Abraham Lincoln – 1858

“I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away; but with Blood.”

John Brown

Causes of the civil war
Causes of the Civil War

  • Compromise of 1850

    • CA admitted as a free state

    • Popular sovereignty for NM and Utah

    • No slave sales in DC

    • Fugitive Slave Act

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin - 1852

    • Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel about the realities of slavery

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act – 1854

    • Kansas and Nebraska territories would decide slavery issue themselves – canceled out the Missouri Compromise

  • Republican and No Nothing Parties – 1854

    • Republicans were anti-slavery former Whig members

    • No Nothings were Nativists – against immigration

  • Bleeding Kansas – 1856

    • Raids and killing between anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups that immigrated into Kansas

More causes of the civil war
More Causes of the Civil War

  • Violence in the Senate – 1856

    • Rep. Brooks beat Senator Sumner with his cane after Sen. Sumner insulted his relative, Sen. Butler

  • Election – 1856

    • James Buchanan wins – favors slavery in the South – wants the Supreme Court to decide the slavery issue.

  • Dred Scott Decision – 1857

    • The Supreme Court rules that slaves are property, not citizens, and living in a “free state” does not make a former slave free

  • Lecompton Constitution – 1857

    • Pro-slavery groups write a state constitution for Kansas for statehood, but it fails to win support

  • Lincoln-Douglass Debates – 1858

    • Abraham Lincoln runs against Stephen Douglas for Senator of Illinois, and they hold a series of 7 debates on the slavery issue

  • John Brown’s Raid – 1859

    • John Brown raids an arsenal at Harper’s Ferry VA to get weapons to give to slaves to start a revolt. He is captured by Robert E. Lee and sentenced to death

Dred Scott


Which was the greatest cause for the eventual Civil War?

Election of 1860
Election of 1860

  • Candidates:

    • Southern Democrats – John C Breckinridge

    • Northern Democrats – Stephen Douglas

    • Constitutional Union Party – John Bell

    • Republicans – Abraham Lincoln

  • Neither side wanted to accept a person on the other side of the slavery issue

  • What advantages did Lincoln have?

Election of 1860 continued
Election of 1860 - continued


  • Lincoln won the electoral vote with 180 votes, but only won 39% of the popular vote and carried no southern states

  • What is the significance of Lincoln’s win?

Southern secession
Southern Secession

  • Lower 7 states secede by January 1861

    • Lincoln’s not in office yet – President Buchanan does not use force to stop it

    • They meet and form the Confederate States of America

  • Fort Sumter is taken by Confederate forces

    • Lincoln made sure the Union would not be the aggressors

  • President Lincoln calls for volunteers for the Union Army

  • VA, NC,Tenn, and AR all join the CSA

Battle of bull run
Battle of Bull Run southern states secede?

  • Ill prepared Union army marched to Manassas

  • Many spectators followed the army to watch the battle and picnic

  • Confederate army used railroads to reinforce its ranks

  • Confederate army forced the Union army to retreat with the civilians - carnage

  • Significance of Battle

  • Showed the war was not going to be quick or easy for the North

  • Union raised 1 million 3 year volunteers

  • Many in the south felt the north would not want to fight a bloody war

  • Few casualties compared to future battles

Advantages southern states secede?



Majority of trained officers were from the south

Defending their homeland

Fighting for their way of life

  • Twice as many railroad tracks

  • Twice as many factories

  • More money

  • More population

  • Organized army

  • Strong navy

  • Functioning government

Strategies southern states secede?



War of attrition

Be on the defensive

Force England and France to help by withholding cotton from them

Slow Victory

  • Naval blockade of southern ports

  • Control the Miss. River

  • Use its huge resource advantage

    Quick Victory

  • Take the Confederate capital of Richmond

Changing warfare
Changing Warfare attrition?




Bullet shaped ammo

Spiral shaped groves in rifle barrels (rifling)

Powder packs allowed for quicker reloading


Exploding shells

Canisters – shells filled with shot (bullets) that exploded and shot bullets everywhere

  • Assaulting a position with massive amounts of men

    • Needed more men than could be killed during the charge

    • Weapons were not accurate and slow to reload

    • Ways wars were fought for generations

Naval technology
Naval Technology attrition?

  • Gunboats – flat bottomed steam ships that could travel up river and were well armed and fortified

  • Ironclads:

    • Merrimack – the CSA created a ship with iron plates bolted to its sides

      • Sank Union ships trying to blockade the CSA

    • Monitor – the Unions answer to the Merrimack, but it had a flat top with a cylinder sticking out where cannons were placed

    • Only fought once, eventually the Merrimack retreated

    • Wood sided ships were not a thing of the past

Civil war battles west
Civil War Battles (west) attrition?

  • Fort Henry and Donelson – February 1862

    • Gen. Grant used gunboats to bombard both forts into surrendering

    • Left the western part of the CSA exposed

  • Shiloh – April 1862

    • 2 days of battle left 11,000 CSA dead and 13,000 Union dead

    • Bloodiest battle in the western hemisphere

  • Mississippi battles – April to June 1862

    • Captured New Orleans and most major ports on the Mississippi River except two

    • Cut the CSA in half and control of the Miss River

    • Union Naval technology helped in the west

Civil War Battles attrition?

Civil war battles east
Civil War Battles (east) attrition?

  • Battle of Seven Pines – May 1862

    • McClellan is General of the Army of the Potomac

      • Well organized, but cautious

    • Lincoln has to push McClellan into action

    • Looses the battle

    • CSA Gen. Joseph Johnston dies and Robert E. Lee is put in charge

  • Seven Days Battle – June 1862

    • Lee splits his army, fakes an attack on DC, and attacks McClellan

    • CSA looses 20,000 men to the Unions 16,000 in the battles

    • McClellan decided to retreat

  • 2nd Battle of Bull Run – August 1862

    • Gen Pope takes McClellan’s post as commander

    • Is crushed by Lee in his march to Richmond

    • McClellan is put back into charge of the Army of the Potomac

  • Battle of Antietam – September 1862

    • Lee’s plans to invade the North are discovered by McClellan

    • McClellan hesitates even though he has 2x as many soldiers

    • Bloodiest battle of the Civil War

    • Lee retreats, but McClellan doesn’t follow to crush his army

Evaluations attrition?

  • General McClellan

  • General Lee

  • General Grant

  • Abraham Lincoln

  • Southern Military

  • Northern Military