Nationalism Chapter 24 Section 1 and 2
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Italian and German Unification • Objectives • Students will explore how nationalism stirred in Italy after the Congress of Vienna • Students will discover the heart, brains and sword of Italian unification • Students will examine the challenges Italy faced after unification • Students will discover Bismarck’s plan for Germany and how he hoped to achieve it • Students will identify how Germany grew and changed after unification.
The Congress of Vienna • Metternich • Distrusted democracy and political change • Wanted to reestablish the old order (absolute monarchy) • Continue the power of the Hapsburgs in Austria • Dominated the congress, wanted to restore the balance of power • Goals for Other Decision Makers • Make sure France could not rise again to such power • Put down revolution wherever it might appear • Remove traces of French Revolution and Napoleon’s rule • Was not allowed to keep any conquered territory • Boundaries back to 1792 • Forced to pay indemnity, or compensation for damages
After Congress of Vienna • Austrian Prince Metternich wanted Congress of Vienna to maintain old Europe, old relationships • 15 years after Congress, old order destroyed beyond repair • 1800s, nationalism a growing force in Europe, fostered by decisions made at Congress of Vienna • National Groups Ignored • Congress had ignored national groups, placing them under control of large empires; some empires included different ethnic groups • Italians split into three groups—much of northern Italy under Austrian rule, other states under Hapsburgs, still others under a French ruler • Italian nationalism grew in opposition to these conditions
Young Italy • Others formed secret societies to work for political change, plotted to overthrow Austrian government in Italy • 1831, popular writer, Giuseppe Mazzini, launched nationalist group called Young Italy to fight for unification of Italian states • Mazzini had been exiled but smuggled patriotic pamphlets into Italy • Young Italy attracted tens of thousands of Italians to cause of unification • Mazzini considered the “heart” of Italian Unification Mazzini and Young Italy Giuseppe Mazzini
Cavour and Sardinia • Only successful revolt against Austra was in Sardinia • Rulers forced to grant new constitution; Sardinia remained independent • One of most important leaders of Italian unification emerged, Camillodi Cavour • Founded nationalist newspaper, Il Risorgimento—“resurgence” or “rebirth” The Path Toward Unity As Italian nationalism grew, some Italians led unsuccessful rebellions. Then two men rose to lead a successful movement to unify Italy. Camillo di Cavour
Sardinia and Italy • Kingdom of Sardinia • 1852, Cavour became prime minister of independent Kingdom of Sardinia • Believed thriving economy important for Italy to be reborn • Economy • Cavour worked to build Sardinian economy • Believed Italy should be reborn as monarchy • Ally • Cavour in position to cultivate powerful ally • Supported France in war with Russia; gave France provinces of Savoy, Nice • France’s Support • France agreed to support Sardinia in war against Austria • 1860, northern Italian states liberated from control of Austrian Empire Cavour is considered the “Brains” of Italian Unification
Garibaldi and the Red Shirts • Sword of Italy • Many Italians consider Cavour “brain” of Italian unification, Mazzini “heart” • Giuseppe Garibaldi has been called “sword” of Italy • Garibaldi joined Young Italy movement, 1833 • Exile • Nationalist activities forced Garibaldi to flee Italy twice • Learned techniques of guerilla warfare while living in South America • Returned to Italy often to continue fight to free Italy from Austrian domination • Return • 1854, Garibaldi returned for good • Cavour asked to lead part of Sardinian army in war against Austria • After bitter fighting, Austrians agreed to give up Lombardy, retaining Venetia
Giuseppe Garibaldi The “sword” of Italy
Unification The Red Shirts • 1861, territories held elections, all agreed to unification • Holdouts were Venetia, still belonging to Austria; Papal States, under French troops supporting pope • 1866, Prussia defeated Austria, gave Venetia to Italy • 1870, Prussia forced French to withdraw from Rome • Italian troops entered Rome, completed unification under King Victor Emmanuel • Followers known as Red Shirts because of colorful uniforms • By July 1860, using guerilla warfare, Garibaldi, Red Shirts gained control of island of Sicily • September, Garibaldi, Sardinian troops conquered Naples • Red Shirts now controlled southern part Italian peninsula • Garibaldi offered Kingdom of Two Sicilies to Sardinian king Victor Emmanuel Control and Elections
Social, Economic Problems Poverty, Emigration Reforms • Strong regional differences led to lack of unity • Southern Italians resented being governed by Rome • Catholic Church did not recognize Italy as legitimate nation • Poverty serious problem, caused many to emigrate • 1880s, large numbers left Italy, many for Americas • Unemployment, rising taxes led to rioting, violence • Voting reform a major priority • 1870, only wealthiest Italian men could vote • By late 1800s most adult male taxpayers could vote Challenges After Unification In the years after unification, Italy faced many new challenges. Although politically unified, Italy had to deal with a number of social and economic problems.
A New Foreign Policy Empire Building • 1882, Italy formed military alliance with Austria-Hungary, Germany • Agreed to defend each other against any possible attack • Arrangement known as Triple Alliance; this, other alliances, brought Europe to war in 1914 • Italy tried to build empire • Tried to gain control over Ethiopia • Failed after being defeated by larger Ethiopian army, 1896 • 1911, Italy declared war on Ottoman Empire; gained territory in Africa Reforms and Empire • As Italy industrialized, particularly in north, government passed reforms including laws limiting work hours, prohibiting child labor • Government encouraged building transportation, water systems to improve cities, encourage industry
Nurturing Nationalism Revolution • Napoleon nurtured nationalism by uniting German states into confederation • 1815, after Napoleon’s defeat, Congress of Vienna retained organization, renamed it German Confederation • 39 separate states with common language, culture poised for movement to unite • 1848, revolution swept through Europe • German liberals also took opportunity to revolt • Differed over whether to support constitutional monarchy or republic • Agreed that German unity would promote individual rights, liberal reforms Steps Toward Unification Germany was not a unified nation in 1848, although the patchwork of independent states did have a common language and culture.
Unkept Promises • Facing calls for increased democracy, Prussian king Frederick Wilhelm IV promised constitution, other reforms • End of 1848, went back on promises; constitution never written • Banned publications, organizations that supported democracy • Economic, Cultural Unity • 1834, Zollverein, customs union, created; removed tariffs on products traded between German states • Inspired businesspeople to support unification; encouraged growth of railroads connecting German states; joined Germans economically • German economy growing; sense of German culture growing as well
Otto Von Bismarck • Conservative (supported monarchy) politician, leading force behind German Unification. • Become prominent in Prussian politics • 1847, gave strong conservative speech at National Assembly • 1862, new Prussian King, Wilhelm I, choose Bismarck as prime minister • Philosophy • Believed Prussia destined to lead German people to unification • Practiced realpolitik, policies based on interests of Prussia • “Blood and Iron” • Politics of reality evident in push to increase Prussian military powe • Speech to Parliament: German unity not won by speeches, majority vote but by “blood and iron” • Built Prussian army into great war machine
Bismarck’s Wars • Prussian War with Denmark = Victory for Prussia united Northern German States • Austro-Prussian War = Austria versus Prussia = Victory for Prussia who controlled all but three German Territories • Franco-Prussian War = France versus Prussia = Final victory for Prussia who united all of the German States. • Peace treaty signed at Versailles
Creating the German Empire Peace treaty had far-reaching consequences • Victory established unified German empire • Representatives of allied German states met at Versailles, near Paris • Proclaimed Wilhelm I first kaiser—emperor—of German Empire • Wilhelm appointed Bismarck first chancellor • German victory changed balance of power in Europe • Napoleon III gone; France no longer as powerful • As Germany grew economically, new empire rose in power
Bismarck and Wilhelm II • After Unification • Bismarck did not want to expand Germany’s borders • Believed France remained a threat, however • Alliances • Bismarck made alliances with Austria-Hungary, Italy, Russia • Nations agreed to help protect one another from possible attack • Bismarck Out • 1888, Wilhelm’s grandson became kaiser • Wilhelm II fired Bismarck as prime minister after disagreement • Wilhelm II • Early 1900s, continued to make alliances with other European nations • Built up most powerful military force in Europe
A New Government Government and the Church • Germany’s 25 separate states wanted to retain some power • Government took federalist form; power shared between state, national governments, Wilhelm led government • Political parties developed • Bismarck believed Roman Catholic Church posed threat to government • Believed government, not church, should control aspects of culture, like education • Worked to restrict influence of Catholic Church in Germany The Empire’s Growth and Change In the years after 1871, Germany prospered. Under the leadership of Wilhelm I and Bismarck, Germany developed into a strong empire. This period was known as the Second Reich, or empire, because Germans considered the Holy Roman Empire to be the First Reich. This struggle between the government and the church was known as Kulturkampf, which means “the struggle for culture.”
Reichs of Germany • 1st Reich • Holy Roman Empire • 2nd Reich • Unified Germany • 3rd Reich • Nazi Germany
Economic Growth • Railroads • After unification, Germany experienced time of economic growth • France had paid reparations—money for war damages • German leaders used some money to build railroads to link German states • Industrial Growth • Other funds helped build German businesses • New empire began to catch up with other industrialized countries of Europe • Coal mines, steel factories flourished in Germany’s major cities • Path to Social Reforms • Industrialization had critics in Germany • German socialists protested against harsh factory conditions • Called for state control of all industries
Other Nationalist Movements of the 20th Century • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Israel • Chechen rebels in Russia • Irish Republican Army (IRA) in the United Kingdom • Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan (PJAK) and Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) operating against Turkey. The purpose of nationalist movements is to create independent nations under their own authority
Unrest in Russia Main Idea In the 1800s and early 1900s, Russians rebelled against the absolute power of the czar and demanded social reforms. • Reading Focus • What was government and society like in Russia in the first half of the 1800s? • What were some examples of reform and repression in Russia? • How did war and revolution affect Russia in the early 1900s?
Absolute Power Huge Empire • To govern large, diverse empire, Russian monarchs ruled with absolute power • Called czars, controlled most aspects of Russian life • Believed in autocracy, government by one leader with unlimited powers • Russia one of great powers of Europe, first half 1800s • Troops helped defeat Napoleon; leaders helped reorganize Europe after his fall • Russia very different from other European powers • Empire huge, stretched eastward far into Asia, included many different ethnic groups Government and Society
Serfdom • Agricultural Society • Russian society under czars mostly agricultural • Unlike other European countries, Russia had not industrialized • Much of population, serfs—workers considered part of land they worked • Serfs • Controlled by lords, wealthy nobles who owned land • Technically not slaves; living conditions, lack of freedom, resembled slavery • Not allowed to leave property where born; did not own land they worked • Societal Problem • Serfs had to make regular payments of goods, labor to lords • Some in government wanted to improve conditions, unable to make reforms • Russian serfdom way of life, a major problem in Russian society
The Decembrist Revolt Nicholas’s Response • Secret societies formed to fight against czar’s rule • Saw opportunity for change with death of Alexander I, 1825 • One group called Decembrists • Included military officers • 3,000 soldiers assembled near Winter Palace • Refused to declare allegiance to new czar, Nicholas I • Nicholas responded by crushing rebellion • Many Decembrists captured, sent to Siberia, isolated region in far eastern Russia • Five Decembrists executed • Decembrist revolt failed, but began revolutionary movement in Russia destined to grow in years ahead Reform and Repression Russians wanted more freedoms. But Russia’s conservative czars were resistant to reform, which led to revolts, unrest, and repression.
Reforms of Alexander II • Russia Lagging Behind • Alexander II came to power after Nicholas, 1855, near end of Crimean War • Loss of war showed Russia far behind rest of Europe • Did not have modern technology, industry to build competitive military • Reforms • Alexander II began program of reforms • 1861, freed Russia’s serfs, gave them right to own land as part of commune • Believed terrible living conditions could bring rebellion • Economy • Alexander II hoped giving serfs own land would build market economy • Government set up system for peasants to buy land they worked on from landowner, usually with government help
Reform and Repression Alexander II made other reforms to modernize Russia • Set up new judicial system • Allowed some local self-government • Reorganized army, navy • Despite reforms, revolutionary movements continued to gain strength, call for more changes • 1881, radical group, The People’s Will, assassinated Czar Alexander II
Different Form of Unrest Industrialization under Nicholas • Mobs began attacking Jews, killing them, destroying property • Attacks known as pogroms; first wave began after Alexander II assassinated • Some wrongly blamed Jews • Government did not stop attacks • 1894, Nicholas II crowned • Autocratic ruler, developed industry • 1890s, Russia began building Trans-Siberian Railroad to link western Russia with Siberia • Expansion east would lead to war Unrest Under Alexander II • Alexander’s son, Alexander III, became next czar • Alexander III a reactionary, wanted to go back to way things were in past, ended father’s reforms • Responded to revolutionary threats by going after individuals, groups suspected of plotting against government
War and Revolution • Expansion East • Russia expanded east • Came into conflict with another imperial power—Japan • At same time, revolution brewing • War With Japan • Early 1900s, Japan building empire, viewed Russia as threat • 1904, Japanese forces attacked, defeated Russia in Russo-Japanese War • Growing Unrest • Defeat shocked many Russians, added to unrest • One group calling for change, Marxists—followed communist theories of Karl Marx • Marxist Ideas • Wanted to create socialist republic—no private property, state to own, distribute goods • 1902, Vladimir Lenin called for revolution to overthrow czar
The Revolution of 1905 • 1905, many Russians ready to rebel against czar • January 22, Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, brought petition to czar at Winter Palace, listing number of demands • Troops fired at group; hundreds died; day known as Bloody Sunday • Revolution Begins • Bloody Sunday inspired many sectors of society to rise up against czar; rebellions broke out, czar’s strict rules disobeyed • Workers went on strike, students protested in streets • Czar promised reform, but did not follow through • Massive strike in October; 2 million workers protested in streets
Provisions Duma End Revolution • Manifesto promised constitution • Individual liberties to all, including freedom of speech, assembly • Many gained right to vote • Voters would elect representatives to the Duma, assembly to approve all laws • Czar continue to rule, but not pass laws without approval of Duma • Nicholas II hoped Manifesto would end revolution • Did not achieve balance between own power, democracy • People still wanted reform The October Manifesto In response to the rebellions and strikes, Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, an official promise for reform and a more democratic government.