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Leadership. Chapter Fourteen. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to:. LO14.1 Review trait theory research, and discuss the takeaways from both the trait and behavioral styles theories of leadership.
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Leadership Chapter Fourteen
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO14.1 Review trait theory research, and discuss the takeaways from both the trait and behavioral styles theories of leadership. LO14.2 Explain, according to Fiedler’s contingency model, how leadership style interacts with situational control, and discuss the takeaways from this model LO14.3 Discuss House’s revised path-goal theory and it’s practical takeaways.
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO14.4 Describe the difference between transactional and transformational leadership and discuss how transformational leadership transforms followers and work groups. LO14.5 Explain the leader-member exchange (LMX) model of leadership and the concept of shared leadership. LO14.6 Review the principles of servant leadership. LO14.7 Describe the follower’s role in the leadership process
What Does Leadership Involve? • Leadership • “a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals”
Trait Theory • Leader trait • physical or personality characteristic that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers.
What Traits Are Possessed by Effective Leaders? • Implicit leadership theory • based on the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers. • Leadership prototype • mental representations of the traits and behaviors possessed by leaders.
Do Women and Men Display the Same Leadership Traits? • Men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively • Women used a more democratic or participative style than men and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women
What Are the Takeaways from Trait Theory? • First, organizations may want to include personality and trait assessments into their selection and promotion processes. • Second, management development programs can be used to build a pipeline of leadership talent.
Behavioral Styles Theory • The Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior. • Consideration: creating mutual respect and trust with followers. • Initiating structure: organizing and defining what group members should be doing.
Question? Allen thrives on organizing and defining what group members should be doing to maximize output. According to the Ohio State researchers, Allen is exhibiting which of these behaviors? • Initiating structure • Concern for people • Relationship-motivated • Consideration
Takeaways from Behavioral Styles Theory • Leader behaviors can be systematically improved and developed. • There is no one best style of leadership. • The effectiveness of a particular leadership style depends on the situation at hand.
Situational Theories • Situational theories • propose that the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation.
Fiedler’s Contingency Model The performance of a leader depends on two interrelated factors: • The degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence • The leader’s basic motivation
Fiedler’s Contingency Model • Situational control • refers to the amount of control and influence the leader has in his immediate work environment
Three Dimensions of Situational Control • Leader-member relations • the extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty, and trust of the work group • Task structure • concerned with the amount of structure contained within tasks performed by the work group • Position power • the degree to which the leader has formal power to reward, punish, or otherwise obtain compliance from employees
Question? Kimberly is a task-motivated leader. According to Fiedler's work, Kimberly would not be effective under which conditions? • Situations of high control • Conditions of low control • Conditions of achievement-orientation • Conditions of moderate control
Path-Goal Theory • Describes how leadership effectiveness is influenced by the interaction between four leadership styles – directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented • Contingency factors • Situational variables that cause one style of leadership to be more effective than another
A Reformulated Theory Three key changes: • Leadership is more complex and involves a greater variety of leader behavior. • The role of intrinsic motivation and empowerment in influencing leadership effectiveness • Shared leadership
Applying Situational Theories • Identify important outcomes • Identify relevant leadership types/behaviors. • Identify situational conditions • Match leadership to the conditions at hand • Determine how to make the match
The Full-range Model ofLeadership • Transactional leadership • focuses on the clarifying employees’ roles and providing followers with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance.
The Full-range Model ofLeadership • Transformational leaders • engender trust, seek to develop leadership in others, exhibit self-sacrifice and serve as moral agents, focusing themselves and followers on objectives that transcend the more immediate needs of the work group.
Question? Coach Bryant gave many great halftime speeches. Which transformational behavior was this? • Inspirational motivation • Idealized influence • Individualized consideration • Intellectual stimulation
Managerial Implications • The establishment of a positive vision of the future—inspirational motivation— should be considered a first step at applying transformational leadership • The best leaders are both transformational and transactional • Transformational leadership influences group dynamics and group-level outcomes • Transformational leadership works virtually
Maintaining Ethical Transformational Leadership • Create and enforce a clearly stated code of ethics. • Recruiting, selecting, and promoting people who display ethical behavior. • Develop performance expectations around the treatment of employees. • Train employees to value diversity. • Identify, reward, and publicly praise employees who exemplify high moral conduct.
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of Leadership • Focuses on the quality of relationships between managers and subordinates as opposed to the behaviors or traits of either leaders or followers. • Assumes that leaders develop unique one-on-one relationships with direct reports.
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of Leadership • In-group exchange • leaders and followers develop a partnership characterized by reciprocal influence, mutual trust, respect and liking, and a sense of common fates. • Out-group exchange • Leaders are characterized as overseers who fail to create a sense of mutual trust, respect, or common fate
Managerial Implications • Leaders are encouraged to establish high-performance expectations for all of their direct reports. • Managers should be careful that they don’t create a homogeneous work environment.
Shared Leadership • Shared leadership • entails a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process in which individuals share responsibility for leading regardless of formal roles and titles.
Servant Leadership • Servant leadership • focuses on increasing services to others rather than oneself • less likely to engage in self-serving behaviors that hurt others
Role of Followers in the Leadership Process • Critical for followers to understand their boss • Followers need to understand their own strengths and weaknesses • Followers should build on mutual strengths to accommodate the leader’s expectations
Video: Women Leading in the Workplace • Space Shuttle Commander Eileen Collins hopes to serve as a role model for other women. How has life in the USAF changed for women over the past several decades to allow her to be Shuttle Commander? • Commander Collins cites cultural issues as a potential cause of women not pursuing math and engineering oriented training and careers as frequently as men. Why do you think this is? • Based on what you saw in the video, do you think that family responsibilities prevent women from growing in their careers?