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Good Energy: Energy Saved by Efficient Buildings. Presentation by Matthew Read for Energy Law- Spring 2006 Chicago-Kent College of Law. Overview. What is efficiency? How do owners build and retrofit for efficiency?

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good energy energy saved by efficient buildings

Good Energy: Energy Saved by Efficient Buildings

Presentation by Matthew Read

for Energy Law- Spring 2006

Chicago-Kent College of Law

  • What is efficiency?
  • How do owners build and retrofit for efficiency?
  • What incentives do building owners have to operate efficiently?
what is efficiency
What is Efficiency?
  • Definition: Using less energy to do the same amount of work
  • Distinguish from conservation: doing less work with less energy

17 J. Land Use & Envtl. Law 421

environmental benefits of using less energy
Environmental Benefits of Using Less Energy
  • Fewer emissions
  • Fewer generators
  • Fewer transmission lines/ pipelines needed
  • Fewer resources used
building envelope
Building Envelope

building envelope 2
Building Envelope (2)
  • Glazing (Windows)
    • Shading Coefficient- SCx
    • Glazing assembly
    • Horizontal overhang
  • Opaque (Walls)
    • Insulation material
    • Positioning of insulation
    • Overall heat capacity

window assemblies
Window Assemblies

R-factor: insulation performance

  • Assembly material: wood or vinyl
  • Gas fill: Ar and Kr
  • Weather stripping

window assemblies 2
Window Assemblies (2)

Low emittance glass coatings prevent solar radiation:

  • Direct Transmittance
  • Absorption/ Desorption
climate zones
Climate Zones

solar heat gain coefficient shgc from coatings
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) from Coatings
  • The SHGC tells how well the product blocks heat caused by sunlight.
    • High SHGC- as much heat from the sun can enter as clear glass. For cool summers and very cold winters.
    • Moderate SHGC- screen a portion of the sun’s heat.
    • Low SHGC- screen the most heat from the sun. More important in the south.

lighting 2
Lighting (2)
  • Light reduction controls
  • Automatic shutoff
  • Energy Efficient lighting Sources to light paths, walkways, and parking lots.
    • 45 lumens/ Watt
    • Fluorescent
    • Compact fluorescent
    • Metal halide

energy efficient lighting sources
Energy-Efficient Lighting Sources

the future solid state lighting
Light emitting diodes (LEDs)

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)

Light emitting polymers


Reduced energy consumption

Longer life

Better quality light

More durable

The Future: Solid State Lighting
excess heat generated by lighting elements
Excess Heat Generated by Lighting Elements

85 btus/ hour 3.4 btus/ hour

mechanical 2
Mechanical (2)
  • Heating and cooling loads
  • HVAC equipment performance requirements
  • Temperature and humidity controls (thermostat)
  • Ventilation
  • Duct insulation and sealing
incentives to operate efficient buildings
Incentives to Operate Efficient Buildings
  • Building Codes
  • Monetary Savings through:
    • Energy costs
    • Tax Incentives
efficiency building codes what are they
Efficiency Building Codes: What are they?
  • Uniform standards for efficiency
  • Unique requirements for:
    • Residential
    • Commercial
    • Federal
commercial or residential
Commercial or Residential?
  • A Residential building is classified as any single family houses, duplexes, and multifamily residential buildings three stories or less.

building code example 1
Building Code Example (1)

Federal Register Volume 65 Number 195

building codes where do they come from
Building Codes: Where do they come from?
  • State made: CA
  • Adopting Model standards such as the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) created by the International Code Council (ICC).
    • Updated periodically
who adopts the code
Who adopts the code?
  • Federal Government (federal buildings)
  • State governments
    • Partial adoption
  • Local governments
    • Partial adoption
energy codes how to comply may be your choice
Energy Codes: How to comply may be your choice!
  • Different approaches for compliance available in MEC and IECC:
    • Prescriptive
    • Trade off
    • Performance
prescriptive compliance
Prescriptive Compliance
  • List of values for each component
  • E.g. Lists minimum U-values or maximum R-values for each building component.
  • Quick and Easy
  • Restrictive: based on worst case scenario.
    • Overspending
trade off compliance
Trade-off Compliance
  • Trade enhanced energy efficiency of one component against decreased energy efficiency of another.
  • E.g. trade decreased wall efficiency with increased window efficiency.
  • Less restrictive
performance compliance
Performance Compliance
  • Compare your design with a baseline or reference design and demonstrate that the proposed design is at least as efficient.
  • Flexibility
  • More Effort
  • Complex projects
illinois doe energy codes
Illinois DOE Energy Codes
  • Voluntary Residential Code. Individual local governments have adopted IECC.
  • 2001 IECC Commercial Code
    • Can use COMcheck to show compliance
furnace replacement savings
Furnace Replacement Savings

money savings from doe building energy codes program
Money Savings from DOE Building Energy Codes Program
  • DOE’s $37.5 M investment has resulted in energy savings of $1B per year.
  • Cumulative cost savings from program is over $4.2B.
  • Every $1 spent on program has yielded more than $105 in annual energy savings.

tax incentives 2005 epact
Tax Incentives (2005 EPAct)
  • Improved lighting, HVAC, hot water systems, and building envelope improvements.
  • Cap: Deduction is equal to the amount spent subject to cap of $1.80 per square foot of property.
  • Time limit

Building Codes are Mandatory!