Energy and Life. Chapter 8. ATP in a molecule. A. Cell Energy 1. Energy is essential to life. All living things must be able to: a. produce energy from the environment b. store energy for future use c. use energy in a controlled manner.
A. Cell Energy
1.Energy is essential to life.
All living things must be able to:
a. produce energy from the environment
b.store energy for future use
c. use energy in a controlled manner
b. cell division
c. Movement of cilia and flagella
d. Production of proteins (esp. enzymes)
a. This is the energy molecule which is transformed from food in the mitochondria of cells
b. This energy is stored in the chemical bonds of the ATP molecule and can be used quickly and easily by the breaking of the bonds
1. Phosphate groups are charged (polar and hydrophilic) molecules.
A. AMP or Adenosine Monophosphate is formed when only one phosphate group is attached and only a small amount of energy is required (the chemical bonds do not store much energy).
B. ADP or Adenosine Diphosphate is formed when a second phosphate is added to AMP and when more energy is required to force the 2 phosphates together, yielding more energy when bonds are broken.
C.ATP or Adenosine Triphosphate is formed when the third phosphate is added to ADP.
1. tremendous amounts of energy are required to force the third phosphate close to the two others.
2. This 3rd phosphate is so eager to get away from the other two that when the bond is broken a great amount of energy is released forming ADP
3. The energy of ATP becomes available when the molecule is broken down
1. Proteins have specific sites where ATP can bind so that when energy is released cells can capture and use the released energy efficiently and energy is not wasted.
2. When the phosphate bond is broken and the energy is released, the cell can use the energy for activities such as making proteins or transporting molecules through the plasma membrane.
3. The binding sites on proteins are necessary for cells to use this energy produced from ATP
Structure of leaves
Photosynthesis is the process plants use to trap the sun’s energy and build carbohydrates called glucose, that store energy (ATP).
A. Mesophyll is the photosynthetic tissue of the leaf (2 Types):
B. Dermal Tissue or Epidermis functions much like the skin of an animal; covering and protecting the body of the plant.
D. Guard cells controls the opening and closing of the stomata regulates the flow of water vapor form the leaf tissue; takes in water by osmosis.
E. Chloroplast cell organelles that capture light energy and produce food to store for a later time (3 parts):
1) Disk-like compartments called thylakoids
2) Inner stacks called grana
3)Fluid surrounding called stroma
F. Chlorophyll embedded in the membrane of and is light trapping pigment
The broad, flat portion of a leaf is the blade, which is attached to the stem by a petiole
7. Guard cells cells surrounding the stomata that control stomata opening and closing
8. Air space large empty space within the spongy layers
9.lower epidermis thin, protective single layer of cells along the bottom edge of the leaf
Photosynthesis is the process in which plants use to trap the sun’s energy and build carbohydrates.
6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2
This is accomplished in 2 phases:
occur in the thylakoid sacs-chloroplast
1) Sunlight strikes and light energy transfers to chlorophyll
2) Chlorophyll passes energy down through the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN- providing energy that will:
Split (photolysis) H2O O2 + 2H + NADPH (from NADP+)
Bond PO4 to ADP forming ATP
3)NADPH and ATP are used in the Light-Independent reactions
B. LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTIONS (Calvin Cycle)-produces glucose; takes place in the stroma; does not require light.
3) NADPH + ATP from the Light Reactions convert PGA into PGAL (still a 3 Carbon sugar)
II. Electron Transport Chain- membrane around the thylakoid