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NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY. ASHIR.A LECTURER DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. Alternative energy sources: Solar energy Wind energy Sea Wave Tide Ocean thermal energy Geothermal energy Biomass. SOLAR ENERGY. The ultimate source of energy is sun.

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    2. Alternative energy sources: • Solar energy • Wind energy • Sea • Wave • Tide • Ocean thermal energy • Geothermal energy • Biomass

    3. SOLAR ENERGY • The ultimate source of energy is sun. • Its potential is 178 billion mega watt, which is about 20,000 times world demand. • Clean source of energy compared to other sources of energy. • It is expected that it will be one of the most important supplies of energy in coming years.

    4. Total world power demand = 1013 watts

    5. If we can use 5% of the total energy, it will be 50 times what the world will require. • Solar energy is trapped by producing steam and electricity by using PV panels. • Solar energy is diluted form of energy. • Only available on day time. • Storage is required for ensuring continues supply of energy.

    6. Storage • Thermal storage • Mechanical storage • Chemical storage • Usual method of storing energy • Can be stored by producing hydrogen • Using mechanical or electrical devices • In chemical bonds or phase changing salts

    7. APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY • Heating and cooling of residential building. • Solar water heating. • Solar drying of agricultural and animal products. • Solar distillation on a small community scale. • Salt production by evaporation of seawater. • Solar cookers. • Solar engines for water pumping.

    8. Food refrigeration. • Vapour absorption refrigeration systems. • Concentrated energy is supplied to heat engine, which then drives compressor. • Bio conversion and wind energy, which are indirect source of solar energy. • Solar furnaces. • Solar electric power generation • Solar ponds • Steam generators heated by rotating reflectors • Reflectors with lenses and popes for fluid circulation. • Solar photovoltaic cells for direct conversion of solar energy to electricity.

    9. WIND ENERGY • Winds are caused from two main factors. • Heating or cooling of the atmosphere which generates convection currents. Heating is caused by the absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. • The rotation of the earth with respect to atmosphere, and its motion around the sun.

    10. Wind energy can be economically used for the generation of electrical energy. • The energy available in the winds over the earth’s surface is estimated to be 1.6 x 107 MW. • Wind energy can be utilized to run wind mill. • Which in turns drive generator to produce electricity. • The mechanical power can be used for pumping water.

    11. Types of wind mills Horizontal axis Eg: multi blade type wind mill Sail type wind mill Propeller type wind mill Vertical axis Eg: Savonius type wind mill Darrieus type wind mill

    12. Characteristics of wind energy: • Renewable source of energy • Non polluting • Avoid fuel provision and transport • Small scale production of electricity using wind is less costly • For large scale production, lower cost can be achieved by mass production

    13. Problems: • Wind energy in available in dilute form. So conversion mechanism have to be necessarily large. • Fluctuating in nature. • Wind energy need storage means because of its irregularity. • Wind energy systems are noisy. A large units can be heard many kilometers away. • Large areas are needed to install wind farms for electrical power generation.

    14. In India wind speed lies between 5km/hr to 20km/hr. • India has a potential of 20,000MW of wind power. • DNES plans to harvest 400MW of wind energy during eighth plan period. • The low velocity and seasonal winds imply a high cost of exploitation of wind energy. • Mainly used for water pumping and rural electrification.

    15. MAJOR WIND MILL PROJECTS IN INDIA: • CAZRI wind mill at Jodhpur (Rajasthan) • WP-2 water pumping wind mill by NAL Bangalore. • MP-1 sail wind mill at NAL Bangalore. • Wind mills at Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute Bhavnagar. • 12 PU 500 wind mill at NAL Bangalore. • Madurai wind mill at Madurai (Tamil Nadu) • Tayabji wind mill at Tilonia near Ajmer (Rajasthan) • Sholapur wind mill at Sholapur

    16. ENERGY FORM BIO-MASS AND BIO-GAS • Bio-mass means organic matter. • The potential application of bio-mass as an energy source is high in India. • Bio-mass is produced in nature through photosynthesis achieved by solar energy conversion.

    17. Photosynthesis reaction H2O + CO2 + solar energy CH2O + O2 • CH2O is stable at low temperature. • At high temperature it breaks and release 112kcal/mole. CH2O + O2 H2O + CO2 + solar energy + 112kcal/mole

    18. Bio-mass resources fall into three categories: • Bio-mass in its traditional solid mass. eg: wood and agricultural residue. • Bio-mass in non-traditional form (converted into liquid fuels). eg: converting bio-mass into methanol or ethanol. 3. Production of biogas from bio-mass. • Bio-gas – 55 -65% methane, 30 -40% CO2 and rest impurities.

    19. Composition of Bio-mass: • Concentrated waste • Municipal solids • Sewage wood products • Industrial waste • Manure of large lots • Dispersed waste residue • Crop residue • Disposed manure iii. Harvested bio-mass, bio-mass energy plantations

    20. ENERGY PLANTATIONS: • Selected species of trees would be planted and harvested over regular time period, on land, near the power plant. • A large area is required for it. Tree which are suggested for use in India are eucalyptus, casuarina and babool.

    21. BIO-GAS: • Considered as a clean source of energy. • Main source for bio-gas production is wet cow dung and livestock waste. • Because of large cattle population in India, bio-gas is significant energy source. • Other sources of bio-gas: • Sewage • Crop residue • Vegetable waste • Water hyacinth • Poultry droppings • Pig-manures • Algae

    22. In big cities, sewage source is the main source for production of bio-gas. • The sewage bio-gas is found to contain 84% methane, which is a high quality fuel. • In rural areas bio-mass found application in • Cooking • Lighting • Mechanical power • Generation of small electricity • More than 7.3 lakh family based on bio-gas plants were installed during seventh period.