Chapter 4. Focusing on Customers. Key Idea Introduction. To create satisfied customers, the organization needs to identify customers’ needs, design the production and service systems to meet those needs, and measure the results as the basis for improvement.
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Customer wants and needs drive competitive advantage, and statistics show that growth in market share is strongly correlated with customer satisfaction.
The econometric model used to produce ACSI links customer satisfaction to its determinants: customer expectations, perceived quality, and perceived value. Customer satisfaction, in turn, is linked to customer loyalty, which has an impact on profitability.
Customer needs and expectations
Identification of customer needs
Translation into product/service specifications
Output (actual quality)
Customer perceptions (perceived quality)
measurement and feedback
PERCEIVED QUALITY is a comparison of ACTUAL QUALITY to EXPECTED QUALITY
Many organizations still focus more on processes and products from an internal perspective, rather than taking the perspective of the external customer.
and feedbackAT&T Customer-Supplier Model
The natural customer-supplier linkages among individuals, departments, and functions build up the “chain of customers” throughout an organization that connect every individual and function to the external customers and consumers, thus characterizing the organization’s value chain.
Vital few & useful many
Segmentation allows a company to prioritize customer groups, for instance by considering for each group the benefits of satisfying their requirements and the consequences of failing to satisfy their requirements.
As customers become familiar with them, exciters/delighters become satisfiers over time. Eventually, satisfiers become dissatisfiers.
Companies use a variety of methods, or “listening posts,” to collect information about customer needs and expectations, their importance, and customer satisfaction with the company’s performance on these measures.
Affinity diagram Tree diagram
Companies must carefully select customer contact employees, train them well, and empower them to meet and exceed customer expectations.
To improve products and processes effectively, companies must do more than simply fix the immediate problem. They need a systematic process for collecting and analyzing complaint data and then using that information for improvements.
An effective customer satisfaction measurement system results in reliable information about customer ratings of specific product and service features and about the relationship between these ratings and the customer’s likely future market behavior.
The types of questions to ask in a survey must be properly worded to achieve actionableresults. By actionable, we mean that responses are tied directly to key business processes, so that what needs to be improved is clear; and information can be translated into cost/revenue implications to support the setting of improvement priorities.
Appropriate customer satisfaction measurement identifies processes that have high impact on satisfaction and distinguishes between low performing processes low performance and those that are performing well.
The Customer and Market Focus category examines how an organization determines requirements, expectations, and preferences of customers and markets; and how it builds relationships with customers and determines the key factors that lead to customer acquisition, satisfaction, loyalty, and retention, and to business expansion.
3.1 Customer and Market Knowledge
3.2 Customer Relationships and Satisfaction
a. Customer Relationship Building
b. Customer Satisfaction Determination