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Trading Peoples. AP World History Chapter 3 Notes. Trading Peoples. Civilizations of Egypt & Mesopotamia greatly influenced neighboring people in the Fertile Crescent = the Aramaeans and the Phoenicians Trading peoples Traveled by sailing ships & by caravan

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trading peoples

Trading Peoples

AP World History

Chapter 3 Notes

trading peoples1
Trading Peoples
  • Civilizations of Egypt & Mesopotamia greatly influenced neighboring people in the Fertile Crescent = the Aramaeans and the Phoenicians
    • Trading peoples
    • Traveled by sailing ships & by caravan
    • Spread languages, customs, and ideas as they traded around the Fertile Crescent
the aramaeans
The Aramaeans
  • Settled in central Assyria around 1200 BCE
  • Capital = Damascus
  • Gained control over the trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia
the aramaeans1
The Aramaeans
  • Because their caravans crisscrossed the Fertile Crescent nonstop, people learned their language called Aramaic
    • Main language of the region until the 800s
    • Closely related to Hebrew and Arabic
    • Many parts of the Bible were written in this language
the phoenicians
The Phoenicians
  • Canaan = land between ancient Egypt and Syria
  • Canaan = modern day Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan
  • Phoenicians settled in northern Canaan
the phoenicians1
The Phoenicians
  • Sailed the seas for trade
    • Made strong, fast ships using timber in cedar forests
  • Built a string of towns & cities along their coast
    • Grew to become city-states
    • Built confederation (loose union) of city-states
the phoenicians2
The Phoenicians
  • Expert navigators
    • Plotted voyages using the sun & stars
  • Took charge of Mediterranean shipping and trade
the phoenicians3
The Phoenicians
  • Created an alphabet = series of written symbols that represent sounds
    • Only 22 characters
    • Each character represented different consonant sound
    • Basis for our alphabet we use today
the phoenicians4
The Phoenicians
  • To protect & re-supply their ships, the Phoenicians set up a network of trading posts and colonies along the coasts of the Mediterranean
    • Colony = settlement of emigrants
the lydians
The Lydians
  • Lived in Asia Minor
  • This area famous for its gold deposits
  • First group to develop a monetary system with set prices using coins
    • Everybody else still bartering = exchanging goods
    • Soon the concept of money traveled to other societies
the olmec civilization

The Olmec Civilization

AP World History

Chapter 3 Notes

mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
  • Meso = means middle
  • Refers to any cultures that lived in present-day Mexico & Central America
olmec civilization
Olmec Civilization
  • One of the earliest Mesoamerican civilizations
  • Located near Gulf of Mexico
  • Knowledge of them comes from excavations of 2 main sites = San Lorenzo and La Venta  both discovered in the 1930s
olmec civilization1
Olmec Civilization
  • Olmec = known for gigantic stone heads carved from basalt (volcanic rock)
    • Some more than 9 feet tall
    • Some weighed as much as 40 tons
    • Heads of rulers
    • Built without wheels or “beasts of burden”  Olmec moved these heads about 60 miles from the mountains to the sites where they were found
    • Think about the giant head from Legends of the Hidden Temple! His name was Olmec!
olmec civilization2
Olmec Civilization
  • Religion played an important role in the lives of the Olmec
    • Many carvings found of the main Olmec god = a being with a human body and the catlike face of a jaguar
    • Olmec believed the jaguar god controlled the harvests
olmec civilization3
Olmec Civilization
  • Early Olmec farmers used slash-and-burn farming = farmers cut down trees to clear land & burned whatever was left
    • Planted maize and other crops among fertile ashes
    • Problem = soil became exhausted after about 2 years
    • Farmers then shifted fields & repeated the cycle
olmec
Olmec
  • Olmec often traded with other Mesoamerican civilizations
    • Olmec artifacts found in other regions
    • Olmec ideas show up with later civilizations, such as:
      • Religious ceremonies
      • Sacrificial rituals
      • Bloodletting
      • Game of pok-a-tok
olmec civilization as the mother civilization in mesoamerica
Olmec Civilization as the “Mother Civilization” in Mesoamerica
  • Because of the influence that the Olmec civilization had on future civilizations within Mesoamerica, it is often referred to as the “Mother Civilization” in Mesoamerica
pok a tok
Pok-a-tok
  • A ritual ball game = rubber balls were batted back and forth across a walled court
    • Symbolized the back & forth struggle between this world and the next
olmec religion
Olmec Religion
  • Olmec rulers = BOTH political leaders AND spiritual leaders
    • Performed rituals and ceremonies to satisfy the gods
    • Temples and pyramids built where thousands could gather for special religious ceremonies and festivals
religious rituals of the olmec
Religious Rituals of the Olmec
  • Bloodletting
  • Sacrifice of humans, animals, and valuable objects
bloodletting
Bloodletting
  • Tools used:
    • Blades
    • Stingray spines
    • Sharks’ teeth
    • Obsidian flakes
    • Rope with thorns
    • Jade “spears”