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Trading Peoples

Trading Peoples

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Trading Peoples

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  1. Trading Peoples Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School

  2. Trading Civilizations • The Egyptians and Mesopotamian peoples had great influence over other civilizations of the Middle Eastern region • Trading civilizations developed and traded with the Egyptians and Mesopotamian civilizations • Aramaeans • Phoenicians • Lydians

  3. 1.)Aramaeans • 1200 BC—settled in central Syria • Created capital at Damascus • Spoke a language called Aramaic • Politically and militarily weak • Constant feuding between the ruling classes • Very active in the land trade in the Middle East • Controlled the land trade between Egypt and Mesopotamia • Became very rich because of trade

  4. 2.) Phoenicians • 3000 BC—the Phoenicians settled in Canaan (Lebanon, Israel, Jordan) • Settled alongside the Philistines • Had to compete for resources • Sea Traders—traded goods to get food that they could not grow • Had to trade—not enough farmland • Built ships out of cedar wood that grew in Canaan • Expert seamen and navigators

  5. Phoenicians traded all over the Mediterranean to get food • They traded • Cedar lumber • Dyed cloth—dyed purple • Elegant jewelry

  6. Jewelry

  7. Dyeing Cloth

  8. Phoenicians built many port cities along the coast—trading ports • Tyre • Byblos • Sidon • Berytus

  9. The Phoenicians’ major contribution was an alphabet • Developed around 1100 BC • Developed to keep up with trade transactions • Contained 22 characters—all consonants, no vowels • The alphabet was easy to learn, allowing more people to be able to read and write—no need for scribes • The Phoenician alphabet became the basis for the Greek alphabet and all western alphabets

  10. The Phoenicians also built colonies • Good trade routes & a safe place to rest mid-voyage • Resources • Trade & profit • The most famous Phoenician colony was Carthage(located in Northern Africa)

  11. The Phoenicians founded colonies around 1100 B.C. Tharros Cadiz Motya Lixis Carthage Kition Utica

  12. Ruins of Carthage

  13. 3.)Lydians • Settle on the peninsula of Asia Minor—modern day Turkey • They were rich because of the rich gold deposits around their homes • Lydians introduced the money system to the world—they were the 1st to produce coins

  14. Lydians in Asia Minor

  15. Hebrews (Jews/Israelites) • The Hebrews introduced monotheism—the belief in one God—to the world • Yahweh=Hebrew word for God • Hebrew teachings have become the basis for: • Judaism • Christianity • Islam

  16. The Bible is the main source for information on the Hebrews • Abraham—father of the Hebrews • A herder and trader from Ur • 1900 BC—Abraham led his family from Sumer into Canaan, along side the Phoenicians and Philistines • Covenantwith God for “Promised Land”

  17. “Now the Lord had said to Abram: Get out of your country, from your family and from your father’s house, to a land that I will show you. I will make you a great nation. I will bless you and make your name great, and you shall be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse him who curses you; and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.” - Genesis 12: 1-3

  18. The Hebrews had to deal with harsh conditions in Canaan—a desert region • Most Hebrews herded animals—sheep and goats • Abraham’s grandson—Jacob—had 12 sons • Each of Jacob’s sons headed a different Hebrew tribe • These tribes became known as the 12 Tribes of Israel

  19. A drought in Canaan caused the different Hebrew tribes to look in different areas for suitable places to farm • The Hebrews were invited into Egypt to share Egypt’s surplus of food • The Hebrews and Egyptians lived peacefully at first • Egyptians, eventually turned the Hebrews into slaves

  20. Hebrew slaves had a difficult life • They prayed for a deliverer • 1200s BC—Moses was able to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt—The Exodus • Moses led the Hebrews into the Sinai Desert • The 10 Commandments were created • Joshua—Moses’ successor—led the Hebrews back into Canaan

  21. Life back in Canaan was very difficult • The 12 Tribes had to fight with the Philistines and Canaanites (Phoenicians) for land • The Hebrews fought for 200 years with little success—the tribes could not unite against their enemies

  22. The Hebrews will unite under King Saul (1020-1012 BC) • Saul was unable to defeat the Philistines • He lost popularity with the people • Committed suicide

  23. The Hebrews turned their hopes on a hero of the wars—David (1012-973 BC) • David had shown his bravery by slaying Goliath • David created his capital at Jerusalem • He built a large temple in his capital

  24. David’s son—Solomon(973-922 BC)—ascended the Hebrew throne in 973 • He built lots of cities • He heavily taxed the people • He was hated by the people • After his death in 922 BC, the Hebrews split into 2 separate kingdoms • Israel—North • Judah—South

  25. Judah and Israel

  26. Each kingdom was politically independent—but independence was short lived • 722 BC—a group called the Assyrianstook Israel • 586 BC—the Chaldeanscaptured Judah • The Hebrews were forced out of their homeland • The Hebrew temple at Jerusalem was destroyed • During this time of foreign occupation, the Hebrews became known as the Jews

  27. 539 BC—the Hebrews were allowed back into their homeland by the Persians • 400’s BC—Ezra gathered Jewish holy writings into a holy book called the Torah • The Torah was composed of 5 books • Genesis • Exodus • Leviticus • Numbers • Deuteronomy

  28. The Hebrews blazed the path for future monotheistic religions • Christianity, Judaism, and Islam all are based on the Hebrew ideas of monotheism

  29. Powerful Kingdoms—Empire Builders • 4 very powerful kingdoms will emerge in Asia and conquer most of the Fertile Crescent Region • Hittites • Assyrians • Chaldeans • Persians

  30. #1.) Hittites • 2000 BC: Hittites conquered Asia Minor • Created city-states on the Anatolia Plateau • Capital: Hattusas • Strong Armies • Used iron weapons • 2 person chariots • Able to conquer Babylon (1595 BC) • Empire lasted until 1200 BC

  31. #2.) Assyrians • Assyrians lived in the hills of Mesopotamia • At first, they were weak and constantly attacked by their neighbors • By 900 BC—the Assyrians had defend themselves and attack others • They developed a very powerful and organized military system • Foot soldiers • Charioteers • cavalry • Used iron weapons

  32. The Assyrians were very cruel to those they conquered • Burned entire cities to the ground • Tortured prisoners • Relocated entire cities and kingdoms • Heavily taxed the people

  33. 650 BC—the Assyrians had a very large empire • Stretched from the Persian Gulf to Egypt and parts of Turkey • Built roads to increase communication

  34. 612 BC—the people of the empire rebelled against their Assyrian captors • The civil war allowed an outside group—Chaldeans—to conquer the Assyrians

  35. #3.) Chaldeans • Chaldeans had very powerful kings • King Nebuchadnezzar(605-562 BC) • He expanded the empire into Canaan—forced Israelites out of Juda • He made Babylon into the largest city of the ancient world

  36. Babylon housed 2 of the world’s great wonders • Hanging Gardens of Babylon • Wall of Babylon

  37. Chaldeans have been credited with the creation of Astronomy • They meticulously watched the sky • Created star and planet charts

  38. No king after Nebuchadnezzar would have his power • The empire slowly fell apart because of weak kings • 539 BC—Persians conquered Babylon and the Chaldean Empire

  39. #4.) Persians • Persians settled in modern day Iran • Persian had many powerful kings • Cyrus • 540s BC—Cyrus conquered much of the known world • Mesopotamia • Syria • Canaan • Phoenicia • Lydia • Greek city-states in Turkey

  40. Cambyses • Cyrus’ son • He increased the Persian’s holdings by capturing Egypt • The empire stretch for over 3000 miles—from the Nile River to the Indus River • 50 million people in the empire

  41. Darius I (522-486) • Divided the large empire into provinces with individual governors for each province • Very tolerant • Had the Royal Road constructed • 1500 miles long • A rest stop was placed on the road every 14 miles