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Chapter 7 On-Line Study Guide. American History Mr. Maxa & Mr. Bellisario. Protectorate. The imperial power allowed the local rulers to stay in control and protected them against rebellion and invasion.

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chapter 7 on line study guide

Chapter 7 On-Line Study Guide

American History

Mr. Maxa &

Mr. Bellisario

  • The imperial power allowed the local rulers to stay in control and protected them against rebellion and invasion.
  • In exchange, the local rulers usually had to accept advice from the Europeans on how to govern their countries.
anglo saxonism
  • The ideas that English speaking nations had superior characteristics, ideas, and systems of government.
reverend josiah strong
Reverend Josiah Strong
  • Supporter of Anglo-Saxonism.
  • Strongly linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian ministry ideas.
alfred t mahan
Alfred T. Mahan
  • Wrote, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783.
  • Mahan argued that prosperous people in the past (e.g., British and Dutch) had built large fleets of merchant ships, thus a navy was needed to protect the merchant fleet and defend its right to trade with other countries.
trade with japan 265
Trade with Japan (265)
  • American business leaders wanted to trade with Japan and China.
  • Until the 1850s, Japan was a closed society, only trading with Chinese and Dutch merchants.
  • Congress sent petitions to President Millard Fillmore asking him to force Japan to trade with the United States.
commodore matthew perry 265
Commodore Matthew Perry (265)
  • Ordered by President Millard Fillmore to go to Japan with four warships.
  • Arrived on July 8, 1853.
  • Had the Japanese sign the Treaty of Kanagawa.
treaty of kanagawa 265
Treaty of Kanagawa (265)
  • The treaty gave the US:
    • Trade rights in two Japanese ports.
    • Peace between the two countries.
    • Promised help for any American ships, shipwrecked off the Japanese cost.
    • Gave American ship permission to buy supplies such as wood, water, food and coal in Japanese ports.
why did people go to hawaii
Why did people go to Hawaii
  • Whaling and merchant ships would stop in Hawaii to rest and restock their supplies.
what did hawaii offer
What did Hawaii offer
  • Good soil, sugarcane grows very good.
  • By the mid-1800s, many Plantation were set-up on the islands.
queen liliuokalani
Queen Liliuokalani
  • Disliked the influence American settlers had gained.
  • 1893, she tried to impose a new constitution reasserting her authority.
  • The planter responded by trying to have her overthrown (she was forced to step down).
hawaii annexation
Hawaii Annexation
  • President Cleveland did not support imperialism.
  • When Queen Liliuokalani was forced to step down, he tried to have her restored to power but it failed.
  • Planters waited until after President Cleveland left office to have Hawaii annexed.
cuban rebel against spanish rule
Cuban Rebel Against Spanish Rule
  • 1868 rebels declare independence (it fails).
  • Jose Marti, rebel leader flees to US to raise support.
  • Cuban rebellion successful in 1895.
  • U.S. officially neutral but American public sided with Cubans.
american investments in cuba
American Investments in Cuba
  • U.S. and Cuba closely linked economically.
  • U.S. had about $50 Million in investments (sugarcane, mines, and railroads).
yellow journalism
Yellow Journalism
  • Exaggerated stories to sell newspapers (usually negative).
william randolph hearst joseph pulitzer
William Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer
  • Two New York newspaper owners who competed against each other to sell newspapers.
  • Both wrote about the atrocities of the Spanish.
valerian the butcher weyler
Valerian “the Butcher” Weyler
  • Spain sent 200,000 men to round up the rebels and put them into concentration camps, over 10,000 people died.
  • Weyler acquired the nickname, “the Butcher”.
u s calls for intervention
U.S. Calls for Intervention
  • President William McKinley did not want to go to war with Spain, fearing the war would cost too many lives and hurt the economy.
  • He told the Spanish if they did not resolve the conflict soon, the US might intervene.
uss maine explosion
USS Maine Explosion
  • The USS Maine was sent to Cuba to protect Americans and American businesses.
  • An accidental explosion kills 260 sailors.
  • Newspapers claim the Spanish caused the explosion.
  • Aggressive nationalism, U.S. asked Spin to leave Cuba.
battle of manila bay
Battle of Manila Bay
  • On May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey with four ships, destroyed eight Spanish ships in one day.
teddy roosevelt the rough riders
Teddy Roosevelt & the Rough Riders
  • The Rough Riders were a voluntary group made up of cowboys, farmers, and athletes.
  • Roosevelt was second-in-command of the Rough Riders.
  • The Rough Riders captured Kettle Hill.
american acquisitions after the war
American Acquisitions After the War
  • When Spain surrenders, Cuba is given their independence (with a condition),
  • U.S. also received Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines.
guam puerto rico philippines
Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
  • Guam and Puerto Rico were annexed by U.S.
  • Philippines was annexed because President McKinley thought they needed to be “Christianized”.
anti imperialists
  • a group of Americans who did not support annexation.
  • The group included William Jennings Bryant, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Adams, and Mark Twain.
cuban independence platt amendment
Cuban Independence Platt Amendment
  • Attached to new Cuban constitution:
    • Cuba could not make any treaty with another nation that would weaken its independence.
    • Allowed U.S. buy or lease a Naval base (Guantanamo Bay).
    • U.S. would have the right to intervene in Cuba.
guantanamo bay
Guantanamo Bay
  • U.S. naval base in Cuba, written into the Platt Amendment.
puerto rico
Puerto Rico
  • In 1900 Congress passed the Foraker Act, establishing a civil government for the island.
  • Basically, Puerto Rico becomes a U.S. territory.
philippines insurrection
Philippines Insurrection
  • Emilio Aguinaldo called for war against the U.S.
  • Insurrection lasted for thee years.
  • U.S. set up concentration camps against rebels.
william howard taft
William Howard Taft
  • William Howard Taft sent to the Philippines to set up schools, roads, and health care.
sphere of influence in china
Sphere of Influence in China
  • In China, foreign government would “lease” land, the land would still belong to China but they would lose control of the leased area.
  • British, French, Japanese, Russians, and Germans all had a sphere of influence in China.
  • These leased areas were the center of economic development including railroads and mining.
open door policy
Open Door Policy
  • Americans wanted to trade in China but were unsure if countries that had a sphere of influence in an area would discriminate against other foreign nations wanting to do business in their sphere.
  • U.S. Secretary of State asked each foreign power with a sphere of influence if they would discriminate, they all agreed not to discriminate.
boxer rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
  • A secret Chinese society organized to fight against foreign control.
  • The society of Harmonious fists (a.k. a. the Boxers).
  • The group decided to destroy both the “foreign devils” and their Chinese Christian converts.
  • Eight nations joined together with 50,000 troops to defeat the Boxers.
president mckinley vs william j bryant in 1900
President McKinley vs. William J. Bryant in 1900
  • The election of 1900 pitted McKinley versus Bryant…again.
  • Bryant attacked McKinley for support of imperialism in Asia.
  • McKinley picked war-hero Theodore Roosevelt and ran on the slogan, “Four years more of the full dinner pail”.
president mckinley assassinated
President McKinley Assassinated
  • While in Buffalo, NY, President McKinley is shot by an anarchist and dies a few days later.
acquiring the canal zone in latin american
Acquiring the Canal Zone in Latin American
  • The U.S. was looking at two locations to build the canal (Panama & Nicaragua).
  • A French company offered to sell the U.S. their rights and property in Panama.
  • Panama at the time belonged to Colombia.
  • U.S. offered Columbia ten million and yearly rent of $250,000 to build the Canal.
    • Columbia refused the U.S. offer.
speak softly but carry a big stick
“speak softly but carry a big stick”
  • West African saying
  • Roosevelt believed in a strong global military presence.
  • Displaying American power to the world would make nations think twice about fighting and help promote peace.
panamanian revolution
Panamanian Revolution
  • Panama had opposed Columbia rule.
  • The French company that was going to sell their rights and property arranged for a small army to staged an uprising with ten U.S. warships off the coast.
building the panama canal
Building the Panama Canal
  • It took the U.S. ten years to build.
  • Disease and mudslides killed workers.
roosevelt corollary to the monroe doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine)
  • President Roosevelt made a speech to congress that stated that the U.S. would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere.