※Participle: a word formed from a verb and used as an adj. to modify nouns.
※Participial Phrases: • participles + other modifiers; • used to modify nouns and pronouns. • To make it negative: • Ex. The car’s driver, not realizing what had happened, continued on his way.
※Participial Phrases Formed from Relative Clauses: • (by reducing subject pattern)
※Position and Punctuation of Participial Phrases: • A restrictive participial phrases follows the noun it modifies. • Ex. There are twelve students receiving rewards this year. • A nonrestrictive phrase may precede or follow the noun it modifies. • Ex. Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell. • Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.
An introductory participial phrases modifies the noun IMMEDIATELY following it. • Ex. Hoping for an “A,”my exam grade disappointed me. (X) Hoping for an “A,”I was disappointed in my exam grade. (O) • The participial phrase can also modify an entire independent clause. • Ex. The team won the championship, shocking the opponents.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. Robotics is a complex field that combines electrics, computer science, and mechanical engineering. • 2. The number of students who are studying robots is growing. • 3. Soon, robots that will work in assembly plants will be able to follow voice commands. • 4. Robots, which have the ability to withstand temperatures and radiation levels, can perform jobs that are too dangerous for humans.
(2) Continuous Form Participles emphasizes the Action is Happening Now:
※Test Yourselves: • 1. Computer programs that are known as expert system will combine textbook knowledge and rules of experience to make decisions. • 2. Computers that are programmed to diagnose diseases accurately are important tools for doctors. • 3. The uses of artificial intelligence that are now being suggested have created excitement around the world. • 4. Robots that are currently being designed will do many dangerous jobs. • 5. A robot that was built to work outside spaceships functioned perfectly duringits first assignment.
※Perfect Form Participles: • Active (having discovered) & Passive (having been discovered); Emphasize the COMPLETED action:
※Test Yourselves: • 1. Women around the world, who have traditionally been without political power, are beginning to gain influence in politics and government. • 2. England, which has been ruled by queens several times in its history, elected a woman prime minister in 1979. • 3. On the other land, voters in the United States, who have not experienced strong female leaders at the national level, may never elect a woman president. • 4. Both India and Pakistan, which have elected women prime ministers in the past, are more progressive in this area than the United States. • 5. Alaska, which was purchased from Russia in 1867, became the 49th state of the U.S. in 1959. • 6. The state, which was once connected to Asia by a land bridge, is now separated from it by only a few miles of water. • 7. The Eskimos, who have lived in Alaska for millions of years, have adapted well to their harsh environment. • 8. A problem that is being discussed by the Alaskan government concerns the rights of Alaska’s natives. • 9. Eskimos who want to preserve their traditional way of life do not care about the modern world.
※Test Yourselves: • 1. Before I left home, I promised my parents that I would return. • 2. Since I made that promise four years ago, I have thought about it often. • 3. Since I am the eldest son, I am responsible for taking care of my parents. • 4. As they grow older, they will need my assistance. • 5. After I had received my B.A., I went to graduate school for two years. • 6. While I was studying at the University of Chicago, I enjoyed living in a big city. • 7. When I think about my future, I always remember my promise.