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Chemical Mysteries in the ER Tim Graham Roosevelt H.S. Chemistry Wyandotte, Michigan 48192 (734) 759-5214 Methylene Blue and Hemoglobin. + methemoglobin. Methylene Blue (colorless).

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Chemical Mysteries in the ERTim GrahamRoosevelt H.S. ChemistryWyandotte, Michigan 759-5214

Methylene blue and hemoglobin
Methylene Blue and Hemoglobin

+ methemoglobin

Methylene Blue


Methylene Blue


+ hemoglobin

*methylene blue plays the role of diaphorase enzyme in

converting methemoglobin to hemoglobin. Side effect…

blue pee!

*note conjugation

across the ring


in methylene blue

*leuco form lacks


Hemoglobin cycles
Hemoglobin Cycles




Hb( Fe2+ )

Hb(Fe2+) * O2




15:10-15:57 17:56-19:57

Nadh diaphorase
NADH Diaphorase

  • MB ER Clip#2

Solubility of cl 1 vs f 1
Solubility of Cl1- vs. F1-

5:35-6:10 7:53-8:49 10:05-12:25 37:45-39:43

Demineralization of teeth enamel
Demineralization of Teeth Enamel

  • Enamel…Calcium hydroxyapatite

  • Ca5(PO4)3OH(s) becomes more soluble in an acid environment (stomach acid)

  • Calcium fluoroapatite… is a harder form of enamel (fluoride toothpastes and treated water.



5 Ca 2+(aq) + 3 PO43-(aq) +OH1-(aq)

23:44-24:20 26:45-27:30 30:40- 31:24

Fluoridation… Colorado Brown Stain “Fluorosis”

  • Gerald J. Cox

  • -initiated public fluoridation of drinking

  • water, Grand Rapids,Michigan, 1945.

  • Today, 43 of 50 largest U.S. cities have

  • fluoridated water at 0.7-1.2 ppm. (CDC)

Fluoride and forensics in the news
Fluoride and Forensics…In The News!

  • Senior researchers from Tennessee's Oak

    Ridge National Laboratory will search for

    fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds, one of

    the approximately 400 types of volatile organic

    compounds emitted by human bodies during

    decomposition. It is believed that these

    compounds are formed as the fluoride added

    to urban drinking water is released after death.

    “Helter Skelter” Murders, 1969.

Barker Ranch

Charles Manson

994 Chemicals found in Cigarettes: A Great Lesson in Organic Nomenclature!Acetanisole; Acetic Acid; Acetoin; Acetophenone; 6-Acetoxydihydrotheaspirane;2-Acetyl-3- Ethylpyrazine; 2-Acetyl-5-Methylfuran; Acetylpyrazine; 2-Acetylpyridine;3-Acetylpyridine; 2-Acetylthiazole; Aconitic Acid; dl-Alanine; Alfalfa Extract; Allspice Extract;Oleoresin; Oleoresin Oil; Allyl Hexanoate; Allyl Ionone; Almond Bitter Oil;Ambergris Tincture; Ammonia; Ammonium Bicarbonate; Ammonium Hydroxide;Ammonium Phosphate Dibasic; Ammonium Sulfide; Amyl Alcohol; Amyl Butyrate;Amyl Formate; Amyl Octanoate; alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde; Amyris Oil; trans-Anethole;Angelica Root Extract; Oil and Seed Oil; Anise; Anise Star Extract and Oils; Anisyl AcetateAnisyl Alcohol; Anisyl Formate; Anisyl Phenylacetate; Apple Juice Concentrate/ExtractandSkins; Apricot Extract & Juice Concentrate; 1-Arginine; Asafetida Fluid Extract And Oil; Ascorbic Acid;1-Asparagine Monohydrate; 1-Aspartic Acid; These are just the ones that start with “A”

Ethanol is the preferred substrate for alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme
Ethanol is the preferred substrate for alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme


When the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme metabolizes the ethylene

glycol, calcium oxalate crystals form.

7:50-9:05 10:50-11:43 13:30-14:22

ADH enzyme…Alcohol dehydrogenase is our primary defense against alcohol, a toxic molecule that depresses the nervous system. High concentrations of alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver and stomach detoxify about approximately one ounce of liquor per hour. The alcohol is converted to acetaldehyde by the oxidation of NAD+ to NADH. Acetaldehyde is even more toxic to the body than ethanol. The body quickly convertes the acetaldehyde into acetate and other molecules that are easily utilized by the cell.

DNA… enzyme

4:00-4:28 9:08-10:00 11:10-12:20 19:50-21:18

Rds respiratory distress syndrome
RDS…Respiratory Distress Syndrome enzyme

Polar Head

Nonpolar Tail

Dipalmitoyllecithin (Surfactant)

4:00-4:26 9:08-10:00 11:10-12:20 19:50-21:18

Lung surfactant
Lung Surfactant… enzyme



Huffing enzyme

  • Toluene (metallic paints) Spray paints are often used as inhalants. Silver, gold, and clear spray paints are often used to get high. Metallic colors of paints are preferred by users because of their high concentration of toluene, the ingredient in the paint that produces the "high."

  • Butane Used to refill cigarette lighters.

  • Butyl Nitrate Butyl Nitrate is a substance sold in "head shops" as room deodorizer.

  • Whippets Whippets are metal canisters that contain Nitrous oxide used to charge whip cream dispensers.

23:43-24:36 29:52-30:10

Sports drinks
Sports Drinks enzyme

  • Water

  • Electrolytes

  • Carbs

Carbon monoxide
Carbon Monoxide enzyme

Edgar Allen Poe’s

drooping eye and

sagging mouth are

tell-tale signs of

carbon monoxide


Wilson s disease
Wilson’s Disease enzyme

Wilson’s Disease results from the liver’s inability to

excrete excess copper. Copper then accumulates in the liver

(leading to cirrhosis or fulminant hepatic failure) and in the brain

(leading to neurological or psychiatric disturbances).


(chelating agent)

Blue #1 enzyme

Azo Dyes

Yellow #5

Red #40

500 nm enzyme