Final exam review -- cells. Structure and tranport. Discovering the Cell. Robert Hooke – named cell; looked at cork Anton Van Leeuwenhoek – saw first living cells Robert Brown – saw and named nucleus Matthias Schleiden & Theodor Schwann plants and animals made of cells
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Structure and tranport
plants and animals made of cells
1. All known living things are made up of 1 or more cells.
2. The cell is structural & functional unit of all living things
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur).
4. Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
5. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition.
6. All energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.
*Small and Simple – few organelles
*Have cell membranes and cytoplasm
*Contains organelles that perform specialized functions
Ex. Plant and animal cells
SA = Length x width
Vol = length x width x height
*Nucleus (plant and animal); DNA is here, contains all directions for carrying on activities
*Nucleolus (plant and animal) makes ribosomes
*Endoplasretic (plant and animal) “highway” system for transport
*Ribosomes (plant and animal) protein assembly sites
*Golgi bodies (plant and animal) packaging site for materials
*Vacuoles (plant – one big and animal – many small ones)
vacuoles are for storage
*Lysosomes (plant and animal) digestive enzymes in these – break down materials
*Chloroplasts(plant only) make sugars -- photosynthesis
*Mitochondria (plant and animal) produce ATP – cellular respiration
*centrioles – ONLY in animal cells help chromosomes divide correctly
made up of MANY different structures working together in a flexible manner (parts are NOT bonded together)
Major components are:
Phospholipids, arranged in a bilayer
Proteins embedded in the membrane
Gated channel protein
Ex. Endocytosis and Exocytosis
(from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration)
Ex. Flood of water into sinking ship…
*This type of diffusion is more common in cells because water molecules are smaller and easier to move than particles…
Ex. Syrup vs. tap water – syrup is hypertonic
From above, now tap water is the answer!
Syrup compared to syrup, tap water compared to tap water….
*moving materials from low concentration to a high concentration – stockpiling…
Ex. Na-K Pump
(keeps nerves functioning)
See pages 90-91 in your textbook
__________ – 3 types
Endocytosis – 3 types
Osmosis and dialysis are passive