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PROTEIN

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  1. PROTEIN Animal Protein Plant Protein

  2. Peptides • Typical Structure • Central C • COOH: Carboxyl Group • NH2: Amine Group • H • Radical Group: 20 different R groups

  3. General Peptide Structure • MWSU. Bio.com

  4. Essential Amino Acids(9) • Cannot produce • Must be derived from exogenous sources • Histidine • Isoleucine • Leucine • Lysine • Methionine • Phenylalanine • Threonine • Typtophan • Valine

  5. Complete Protein • Contains all of the essential amino acids • Animal products • Fermented soy • Quinoa • Amaranth • Buckwheat • Hempseed

  6. Nonessential Amino Acids(11) • Can produce endogenously • Alanine • Arginine • Asparagine • Aspartic Acid • Cysteine • Glutamic Acid • Glutamine • Glycine • Proline • Serine • Tyrosine

  7. Biological Value • Scale from 0-100 • Based upon completeness and digestibility of protein • Highest biological value: • EGGS • WHEY • SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE

  8. Whey Protein • Liquid by-product of cheese production

  9. Soy Protein Isolate • Hulled, defatted soybean flour • Used for texture, meat filler, water retention

  10. Complementary Proteins • Combine plant sources to create complete protein • Biology.clc.uc.edu

  11. Polypeptide Function • Nitrogen balance • Fluid balance • Enzymes • pH balance • Blood Clotting • Hormones • Antibodies • Protein Synthesis • Gluconeogenesis

  12. Nitrogen Balance • + nitrogen balance: utilizing injested protein • - nitrogen balance: losing protein to urea

  13. Fluid Balance • Water attracted to proteins • Cell will engage in protein synthesis to attract water • Osmotic pressure: plasma proteins

  14. Enzymes • Coenzymes: proteins + vitamins • Cofactors: proteins + minerals • Acts as catalysts • Can be denatured

  15. pH Balance • Acids have a lot of H+ ions • Proteins are negatively charged • They attract H+ and reduce acidosis

  16. Blood Clotting • Fibrin

  17. Hormones • Growth Hormone • Thyroxin • Insulin • Antidiuretic Hormone

  18. Immunoglobulins • Adaptive immunity plasma proteins • Responsible for fighting antigens

  19. Protein Synthesis • Emc.maricopa.edu

  20. Gluconeogenesis • Creation of glucose from non-carb sources • YAY Liver!!

  21. Protein Energy Malnutrition PEM • Marasmus • Kwashiokor

  22. Marasmus

  23. Marasmus Features • Infancy • Deprivation or malabsorption • Slowly developing • Severe weight loss and muscle wasting • Anxiety, apathy • Thinning hair and skin • Loss of pigment

  24. Kwashiorkor (second child syndrome)

  25. Features • Older infants and children • Acute onset • Some weight loss and muscle wasting • Edema • Enlarged fatty liver • Apathy, depression, irritable • Loss of appetite • Skin lesions • Hair loss

  26. Protein Requirements • .8 grams/kg of body weight • Pounds/2.2= kilograms