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THE FEDERALIST ERA

THE FEDERALIST ERA

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THE FEDERALIST ERA

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  1. THE FEDERALIST ERA Carol Jean Cox

  2. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Federalists Versus Anti-federalists • Issues Facing the New Government • Hamilton’s Financial Program • Debate on the Interpretation of the Constitution • Emergence of a Two Party System • Decline of the Federalists

  3. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Federalists - people who were in favor of a strong central government • Federalists in full power • Congress & Supreme Court were Federalists • George Washington - first President 1790 • no election- unanimous for Washington • no elections for first few Presidents • A majority of the founding fathers became involved in the government

  4. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Federalists • Federalists--> first election - caucus (group) nominates a President • Washington stepped down after 2 terms • Adams served 4 years (1796-1800) • Anti-Federalists • Anti-Federalists --> those against a strong federal government • Republicans (Jeffersonians) • later Democrat/Republicans • historical beginnings of Democrat Party

  5. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Issues Facing the New Government • U.S. weak • no navy - little army - Indians to deal with • problems on the international scene • e.g. Britain, Spain • Owed money • $55 million • $11 million owed to other countries • Most owed to Americans from Revolutionary War

  6. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Issues Facing the New Government • Not really a united country • European - wait & see attitudes • noted failure of Article Government • wondered about the President for four years

  7. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Hamilton’s Financial Program • Hamilton- Washington’s aide in the Revolutionary War • now Secretary of Treasury • an elitist- aristocrat - slave owner • rich governor of Massachusetts *** problem/issue - how to raise revenue • tariff - tax on imports • foreign company pays tax

  8. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Hamilton’s Financial Program • Excise Tax - (luxury tax) Fed. Gov. Tax • jewelry, cigarette, liquor, • governments of states obligated to collect • not a state tax • Sale of Western Lands • Northwest Territory • all lands to Mississippi

  9. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Hamilton’s Financial Program • Assuming State Debts (credibility) • central government will take over state debts • states owed money to their citizens and from and Cont. Congress & Articles Gov. • why assume debts? • because citizenry will take stock in it • creditors will look to central government (congress) in future for financing • solidifies Fed. Gov in eyes of citizens

  10. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Hamilton’s Financial Program • Government coins money • dollar came from Spanish • Funding • creating a new debt to pay off the old debt • Government issues 3%, 4% notes like savings bonds • whenever cashed in 3% • collect at 3% - trade them for 6% with extension of time • few of veterans from Rev War still had bonds Buys time to raise funds

  11. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Hamilton’s Financial Program • ** TROUBLE: Virginia said not vote for assuming loans because they had paid off debts. • Compromise - capital near Virginia • VA & MA gave up land for Washington D.C. • technically it was in the south

  12. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800

  13. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Hamilton’s Financial Program • NATIONAL BANK - Bank of the U.S. • What to do with money? • Depository for Federal government revenue • Bank chartered for 20 years (1791) • (battle for bank when it comes up for renewal) • Start with $10 million • 1/5 Federal Government Funds • Remainder from Private Funds

  14. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Debate of the Interpretation of the Constitution 1791 • Anti/fed point of view - • Jefferson/Madison (strict interpretation) • (Jefferson in Paris during constitution) • said Mr. Hamilton no provision for central bank • concerned too powerful • Federalist position • Hamilton is a staunch federalist • loose interpretation *** Leads to the emergence of political powers

  15. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Emergence of a Two Party System • Reasons for the division creation of 2 parties • Financial Reasons • funding, assuming, tariffs excise taxes • Sectional Differences • North- Maryland (north) • South - Virginia (south) • West - territories to be states • different views of tariffs North/South • west - statehood area improvements

  16. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Decline of the Federalists (issues causing) • Indians Causing Problems • Federalists not dealing with effectively • Republicans criticize • French Revolution (Bloody) • Federalists not decisive • more criticism from Republicans

  17. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Decline of the Federalists • Whiskey Rebellion • Western Pennsylvania REGULATORS • Lower class not happy w/ another tax • used guns MOB ACTION • set off by the excise tax on whiskey • whiskey most lucrative product of area • tax collectors shot at - intimidation • Response - Washington on horse leads 15,000 troops show of force to intimidate & • to show strength of central gov. (not weak) • *** set things in motion for decline of Federalists

  18. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Decline of the Federalists • Alien & Sedition Acts (1798) • Alien act - increased time for citizenship • affects lots of immigrants because of Europe rev. • law to decrease the support of the immigrants • for the anti-fed side to decrease opposing • party's power • Sedition Act - a crime punishable by fine & Imprisonment to speak against the Fed. Gov. • (George Wash. favored this though not in power) • 5 journalists imprisoned for federalists • 25 went to trial

  19. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Decline of the Federalists • Democrat/Republicans respond • (Madison/Jefferson - fire up pens anonymously) • wroteKentucky & Virginia Resolutions 1798 • states can choose to make null and void any law passed by the Federal Government • states prerogative - states rights • similar to the Summary of the Rights of British America • denouncing Sedition Act • emphasizing states/rights

  20. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Decline of the Federalists • Election Of 1800 • Federalists (Adams) vs. Republicans (Jefferson) • Popular vote with electoral college • Jefferson - President • Hamilton/Burr conflict - duel kills Hamilton • Epithet (Summary) • Federalist Era 1790 -1800 • dominance of single political party • application of constitution powers in • favor of a strong central government • favored the merchants/commerce

  21. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Decline of the Federalists "Federalists served as a halfway house between European past and American future.” Henry Adams (great grandson of John Adams & noted writer ) European Elite ---> American Democracy SHIFT OF POWER CAME WITH JEFFERSON

  22. FEDERALIST ERA 1790's - 1800 • Federalists Versus Anti-federalists • Issues Facing the New Government • Hamilton’s Financial Program • Debate on the Interpretation of the Constitution • Emergence of a Two Party System • Decline of the Federalists

  23. THE FEDERALIST ERA Source: Carol Jean Cox http://faculty.sierracollege.edu/ccox/history_17A/index.html http://faculty.sierracollege.edu/ccox/history_17A/13%20Federalist%20Era.ppt.