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Section 2 - The Crisis Deepens Find Out: • How the Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom’s Cabin affected Northerners • The concept of popular sovereignty • The violence in “Bleeding Kansas” • The attack on Senator Sumner in the Senate
1. The Compromise of 1850 contained a new Fugitive Slave Act to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves. People accused of being fugitives under this law could be held without an arrest warrant, and they had no right to a jury trial. Instead, a federal commissioner ruled on each case and received $5 for releasing a slave and $10 for turning the defendant over to a slaveholder.
FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT2. Why did Northerners resent to Fugitive Slave Act? • It required Northerners to recapture slaves • It placed fines on people who would not cooperate and jail terms on people who helped fugitives escape • Slave catchers roamed the North, which brought home the issue of slavery to Northerners • It made them feel they had to support slavery Effects of the Fugitive Slave Law – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
The Fugitive Slave Act • Federal Commissioner (judge) ruled on each case • Received $5 for releasing defendant • Received $10 to return to slaveholder What do you think happened?
The Fugitive Slave Act cont. • Southerners felt FSA was justified because slaves were considered property • Northerners resented law because it made them part of the slavery system by requiring them to capture runaway slaves • It placed fines on people who wouldn’t cooperate and jail terms on those who helped slaves escape • Northerners faced a moral choice a. Obey law and support slavery b. Disobey law and oppose slavery Question: How could a northerner break the law under the Fugitive Slave Act?
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN3. What role did Uncle Tom's Cabin play in the slavery debate? In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her influential novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin The book stressed the moralevil ofslavery Southerners protested that it did not portray slavery accurately Abolitionist protests increased Instant best seller sold 500,000 by 1857 Eliza Pursued by Bloodhounds from the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
4. In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois drafted a bill to organize territorial governments for the Nebraska Territory, proposing that it be divided into two territories- Nebraska and Kansas.
TENSION BUILDS IN KANSAS5. How did he (Douglas) suggest the slavery issue should be settled in the territories? What would this bill get rid of? What was this bill called? After Stephen Douglas worked to pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, Kansas would vote to decide on whether slavery would be legal or outlawed, which called popular sovereignty This contradicted the 36° 30” line of the Missouri Compromise and ended it vs.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act • Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois to divide up Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska • Let people decide through popular sovereignty whether or not to allow slavery (Why did he do this?) • Would end Missouri Compromise • Turned Kansas into a bloody battleground
BLEEDING KANSAS • The race for Kansas was on. . .both supporters and opponents attempted to populate Kansas to win the vote over slavery • As the election neared, a group of pro-slavery “border ruffians” from Missouri attempted to cross into Kansas • Violence erupted – Bleeding Kansas is the legacy Finally, after years of fighting, Kansas is admitted as a free state in 1861
6. What happened in Kansas after the passage of this bill? • Election for government held in 1855 and supporters on both sides rushed into Kansas to vote • More proslavery than antislavery people voted • 5000 proslavery Missourian’s voted illegally to swing vote for proslavery • Proslavery government won • Antislavery forces elected own government • Both sides armed themselves and violence broke out between the two sides • “Sack of Lawrence” in May of 1855
7. Who was John Brown? • An extreme abolitionist • Avenged the Sack of Lawrence • With 7 other men he murdered 5 proslavery neighbors while they slept in their beds • Known as the Pottawatomie Massacre after creek where victims bodies were found • Civil war broke out in Kansas for 3 more years
John Brown believed that God commanded him to rid slavery from the United States. After leading raids in Kansas with 5 of his sons, he moved to Virginia to plan an attack that would free all the slaves. Brown was wounded and captured and later hanged for treason on December 2, 1859, for his role in trying to capture the American fort at Harpers Ferry from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs. John Brown, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right
8. What violent act happened in Congress? • Charles Sumner from Massachusetts delivered a speech in the Senate attacking proslavery forces in Kansas • Insulted Sen. A.P. Butler of S.C. • Preston Brooks, Butler’s nephew, attacked Sumner on the Senate floor with his cane, hitting him about 30 times and breaking the cane
Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered a blistering speech in the Senate attacking the spread of slavery into Kansas. In his speech he attacked fellow Senators Douglas of Illinois and Butler of South Carolina. It took Sumner three years to regain his health enough to return to the Senate. Hon. Charles Sumner - the great senator and statesman, the champion of civil and political equality - born January 6th 1811, died March 11th 1874 from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Preston Brooks was the nephew of A.P. Butler who was singled out by Sumner in his speech. Brooks was never charged with a crime but resigned his seat in the House after surviving a censure vote. He was soon reelected to fill his own vacancy.