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Michel Foucault (1926-1984) PowerPoint Presentation
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Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

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Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

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  1. Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

  2. Influences: post-structuralism, New Historicism, cultural studies, queer theory, literature and medicine, institutional bases of writers and critics, identity formation. (Norton 1615)

  3. 1961Madness and Civilization • 1963The Birth of the Clinic • 1966 The Order of Things (Les mots et les choses, une archéologie des sciences humaines) • 1969The Archaeology of Knowledge • 1975Discipline and Punish • 1976The History of Sexuality

  4. Three Stages • 1960s: Archaeology 考古學 • 1970s: Genealogy 系譜學 • 1980s: Ethics 倫理學

  5. Archaeology 考古學/考掘學 • 它只是一種探究方式,其目的在於重新揭示知識與理論成為可能的基礎,知識在哪種秩序空間被構成,在何種歷史性的基礎上 …思想得以產生,科學得以建立,經驗在哲學中得到反思,合理性得以形成,而它們何以也許又得瓦解、消失。(Foucault 1973b: xxi, xxii; qtd. in 石計生 372) • 例如, 瘋癲如何被歷史建構為理性的對立物

  6. Madness • 中世紀:瘋人雖由別於常人卻不被鄙視,而被視為受上天特別眷顧的一群人,與人生以外的世界有神祕接觸,擁有常人沒有的智慧。 • 理性主義時代:指「窮人、叛逆者、流浪漢、與瘋子」等缺乏生產能力的人,醫院、瘋人院、工廠、監獄的設立都是為了囚禁和鎮壓。 • 現代 (十九世紀之後):精神病院誕生,瘋子不再像犯人一樣受到懲戒(窮人脫離監禁是因為被視為廉價勞工的主要來源),卻透過種種控制手段,讓人覺得瘋癲是不道德的,「使罪惡感成為瘋子的一種意識」,由瘋癲產生對非理性的恐懼,成為理性的「他者」(the Other) 。

  7. Madness • Madness 的 discourse 並非由瘋人們自己決定,而是由自命為理性者所操控。儘管表面上瘋人被排除於社會外,但有關 madness 的 discourse 卻源自「理性」的社會核心意識中。因此,瘋狂與理性間的關係從來就是混淆不清,但又相輔相成的。 • Foucault 最驚人的結論是,沒有有關 madness 的 discourse,我們永遠無法釐清理性的範疇。 (王德威 21)

  8. Genealogy 系譜學 • 先驅: Nietzsche • 「權力意志」(The will to power):一切事物都是追求權力的意志的結果。 • 系譜學:研究「歷史內容的瞬間湧現」。認為歷史不是整體或連續的,唯有透過「在地知識」(local knowledge) ,也就是那些「個別的、在地的、區域的知識,一種缺乏一致性的差異化的知識,其力量完全是由於它週遭的一切對它懷有的強烈敵意所造成的。正是通過這一知識以及這些在地的大眾的知識…批評才得以進行。」「這些被掩埋的、被壓制的知識,事實上關心的是什麼東西?它們關心的是關於鬥爭的歷史知識。」 (石計生 377-78)

  9. Discipline and Punish 規訓與懲罰 • 「系譜學的任務就是要去研究這一系列對「在地的」、「從屬的知識」所形成的論述的形構、斷裂與規則,去研究靈魂、肉體和主體在各種規訓權力權威中的歷史形成過程。這些規訓性權力運作於諸如監獄、學校、醫院和工廠等機構中。」(石計生 379)

  10. Panopticism 全景敞視主義 • 全景敞視建築是一種分解觀看/被觀看二元統一論的機制。在環形邊緣,人徹底被觀看;在中心瞭望台,人能觀看一切但不被看見。 (Foucault)

  11. Panopticism 全景敞視主義 • 藉由這樣的規訓和懲戒模式,Foucault指出社會本身其實並非是一個公開的場合,而是一個監視社會,在保證個人權利和自由的表面下,權力深深干預著人的身體。(石計生 379)

  12. Jeremy Bentham's nineteenth-century prison:The "Panopticon" http://www.cla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/newhistoricism/modules/foucaultcarceralmainframe.html

  13. Prison cell

  14. Prison school http://www.cla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/newhistoricism/modules/foucaultcarceralmainframe.html

  15. (Fludernik 44)

  16. Ethics 倫理學 • The History of Sexuality 性史 • Foucault 認為「性欲」並非 Freud 所說的是被壓抑的,相反的,是被鼓勵的;在歷史上經過論述爆炸的過程。 • (現代的)性→生殖→人口→勞動力→維持社會關係 • (中世紀的)性→快感→審問 (兒童、瘋子、罪犯各自的性經驗、不喜歡異性的人的性經驗、夢想、沉溺、輕度躁鬱或狂怒,都受到審問) (石計生 381-83)

  17. Foucault 的《性史》指出,關於性方面的節制,是一個歷史趨勢,但各時期方法不同。相對於基督教極力地將「性活動」精確規範並經由關於欲望的自我分析的詮釋學,賦予人一整套的形式和條件的約束;古希臘哲學家並沒有把性活動視為危險的,其「節制」是一種「和自己較量」的過程,而非涉及「他者」或「制度」「規範」的考量。 (石計生 388-89)

  18. Key Terms

  19. Discourse 論述/話語 • 每一社會或文化駕馭其成員思維、行動和組織的規範或條例。 • 話語的功能不僅在建立發出話語者(立法當局、社會輿論、禮教傳統等)與其聽眾(社會成員)的密切關係,且在其訊息傳遞的過程中,暗含了權力的施加和承受的意義。 • 所有知識訊息之有形或無形的傳遞現象。 (王德威 19-20, 29)

  20. Discourse 論述/話語 • Briefly, “language as it is used by and within various constituencies (the law, medicine, the church, for example) for purposes to do with power relationships between people.” (Wolfreys 65) • Discourse = ideology in action (Dobie 170)

  21. Discourse • “Human subjectivity and identity itself is produced out of various discursive formations as a result of the subject’s entry into language.” • Language is “always already shot through and informed by figurations and encryptions of power . . . relationships and networks.” (Wolfreys 66)

  22. Discourse • Through discourse, knowledge = power. • “Discourse disposes: it puts everything in its place. Modern power penetrates everywhere, giving a specific name to every possible variant of human action so as to master the world and leave nothing unexamined, unknown, uncatalogued.” (Norton 1619)

  23. Discursive Formation話語形構 • 話語 (discourse)的互相推衍連結 or 「組織關聯性」(intertextuality) (王德威 29) • The “principle of dispersion and redistribution” of discourse • “A structurally interactive flow serving, inescapably, a political or ideological function” (Wolfreys 69)

  24. Epistémé 知識領域 • 或稱 archive (檔案) • 「一定時間內論述規則的總和」 • 每一時代對外在世界的特定認知模式 • 傳統史學主張在各時代社會間找出一個起承轉合的連續性;Foucault 卻認為每個時期的「知識領域」都是各自獨立,沒有邏輯發展的必然性。 (王德威 20)

  25. Epistémé 知識領域 • Deep-rooted, unconscious structures for organizing knowledge. (Norton 1616) • The rules and constraints outside which individuals cannot think or speak without running the risk of being excluded or silenced. (Dobie 170)

  26. Genealogy (1) • Describing the present through an analysis of the forces that created it. (Norton 1616) •  Genealogy does not claim to be more true than institutionalized knowledge, but merely to be the missing part of the puzzle.  http://www.california.com/~rathbone/foucau10.htm

  27. Genealogy (2) • It works by isolating the central components of some current day political mechanism and then traces it back to its historical roots. These historical roots are visible to us only through two separate bodies of genealogical knowledge: the dissenting opinions and theories that did not become the established and the local beliefs and understandings. http://www.california.com/~rathbone/foucau10.htm

  28. Power • Depersonalized: Power does not belong to anyone, nor does it all emanate from one specific location, such as the state. • Decentered: Rather, power is diffused throughout the “capillaries” (毛細管) of the social system. (Norton 1618)

  29. Power/Knowledge • The production of knowledge is wedded to productive power. Modern power requires increasingly narrow categories through which it analyzes, differentiates, identifies, and administers individuals. (Norton 1620)

  30. Body Politics • Power operates through the daily disciplines and routines to which bodies are subjected. (Norton 1618)

  31. Why is Foucault a post-structuralist? • By focusing on the larger systematic social forces, Foucault highlights the social construction of the ‘subject’ and thereby deconstructs the self. (Norton 1617)

  32. Anti-humanism • He objects to humanism, esp. its claim that “we are ‘individuals’ with unique nature, possessing coherent interior identities, motives, desires, and conscious intentions.” (Norton 1617)

  33. Counter-enlightenment • Connected the rise of the individual with “a tremendous decrease in freedom.” • “In each case, an institution demands, examines and watches over all subjects, and punishes deviants.” • Such a society is prisonlike, or “carceral”. (Norton 1618)

  34. Anti-Marxism • Foucault contends that since power operates in innumerable places and taking many different forms, there is no single privileged place for the political activist to go to work, no locus of power whose removal will bring the whole system tumbling down. (Norton 1618)

  35. References • Dobie, Ann B. Theory into Practice. Thomson/Heinle, 2002. • Fludernik, Monica. “Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality, and Corporeal in the Literary Prison.”Textual Practice, 1999 Spring; 13 (1): 43-77. • Foucault, Michel 著。王德威譯。《知識的考掘》。麥田,1993。 • Leitch, Vincent B, ed. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. 2001. • Wolfreys, Julian. Critical Keywords in Literary and Cultural Theory. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. • 石計生著。《社會學理論》。三民書局。2006。