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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council. The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council. Was it… The best thing that ever happened to the Church? Or The worst thing that ever happened to the Church?. The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council. The critics (“defenders”) say that Vatican II:

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the second vatican ecumenical council1

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Was it…

The best thing that ever happened to the Church?

Or

The worst thing that ever happened to the Church?

the second vatican ecumenical council2

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

The critics (“defenders”) say that Vatican II:

Was led, not by the Holy Spirit, but by Satan

The Liturgy became corrupt and profane

The music was an abomination

Eucharistic prayers are unscriptural and wrong

Attendance at Mass declined

Numbers of priests and religious declined

Pastoral Authority was undermined and eroded

Teachings are ambiguous

Morals have eroded

Missionary activity is confused and unorganized

Dissent is rampant

Sex scandals a result of lax confused teachings

the second vatican ecumenical council3

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

There should not be women at the altar

There should be no altar girls

The vernacular Lexionary is suspect

Respect and reverence for the Most Holy Eucharist is lost when taken standing and in the hand

the second vatican ecumenical council4

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Sacred Liturgy is not as the Apostles intended; Religious Freedom is a contradiction; All dogmas, morality, and practices are ridiculous and contradictory

--Marcel Lefebvre

“…The sheep suffer for what the shepherds do wrong and as a result we have been wandering in a spiritual desert of liberal theology for the past 40 years.”

--Robert Sungenis

the second vatican ecumenical council5

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Supporters (“progressives”) say that V.II:

Reenergized the Church and made it more relevant

Empowered women and laity in service to the Church

Liturgical ministers

Parish councils and other advisory groups

Parish administrators

Diaconate

Emphasized marriage as a vocation of relationship

Annulment process was made better

Attention to society and the poor increased vastly

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

“Without Vatican II I couldn’t have remained faithful to the Church or its teachings.”

“The Liturgy has been opened up to us and now we can participate more fully and pray more efficaciously.”

“I could never have converted to Catholicism before Vatican II.”

“I understand the Mass now.”

“Faith is no longer a formula or rote memorization but an internalization of intellectual, emotional, spiritual understanding”

the second vatican ecumenical council7

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

There have been 21 Ecumenical Councils

(Ecumenical = world wide)

The last three councils were

Council of Trent (1545 – 1563) #19

First Vatican Council (1869 – 1870) #20

Second Vatican Council (1962 – 1965) #21

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Background History

19th Ecumenical Council: Council of Trent

1545 – 1563 (18 years!)

Pope Pius V (1556 – 1572)

Tridentine Missal (Tridentine = “of Trent”)

Tridentine Catechism (In US “Baltimore”)

Sacred music was canonized

The Church begins isolationism

Response to Luther and other reformers (1517 forward)

Henry VIII (1534)

Failed inquisitions

Final East/West Schism (1484)

Persecutions of Roman Catholics

the second vatican ecumenical council9

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Pope Pius V – portrait by El Greco

the second vatican ecumenical council10

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

More Background History

20th Council was Vatican I

Summoned by Pius IX (1846 – 1878)

1869 – 1870

Interrupted by Franco-Prussian war

First act of V.II was to adjourn V.I

Reaffirmation of the Word of God (Bible)

Reaffirmation of the primacy and infallibility of the Pope

Pius IX – Immaculate Conception (1854)

Pius XII – Assumption of Mary (1950)

© Ron Kienzle 2008

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Why was the 21st Council necessary?

Dozens of technological advances changed the very way we think

Improved communication highlighted global problems (have vs. have-not nations)

Atheism became popular

Cold war, Communism, Humanism

Continuing Protestant “reformation”

Church became rigid and authoritarian

Beatnik revolution

Women’s issues began to surface

the second vatican ecumenical council14

Just in America!

  • Beatniks
  • Timothy Leary
  • Playboy Magazine
  • Explosive growth of Evangelicals
  • Sputnik and the rise of science

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

the second vatican ecumenical council15

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Why was V.II NOT necessary?

Attendance at Mass was high

Abundance of priests and religious

Schools flourished

Catholic education thought to be best in nation

Liturgy was beautiful and holy

The members understood the hierarchy and were faithful to it

© Ron Kienzle 2008

the second vatican ecumenical council16

Pope John XXIII (1958 – 1963) announces the Council in 1959

  • Oversaw the opening session the fall of 1962
  • Died June 1963

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

the second vatican ecumenical council17

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) continued the council

Sessions began in September of each year 1963 thru 1965 ending in late November or early December each year

the second vatican ecumenical council18

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Attendance by “Council Fathers” varied from 2500+ to about 2100

Mostly bishops and heads of male religious orders

Many other groups were represented:

There were over 17 Orthodox representatives

A large number of Protestants

23 Catholic women “auditors” – 3 from US

All these groups contributed to discussions

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

What were the results?

16 Documents

No changes to dogma

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Four Constitutions:

Lumen Gentium (Light of Nations) – Dogmatic Constitution on the Church

Dei Verbum (Word of God) – Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation

Sacrosanctum Concilium (Sacred Council) – Dogmatic Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy

Gaudium et Spes (Joys and Hopes) – Dogmatic Constitution on the Church in the Modern World

the second vatican ecumenical council21

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Three Declarations:

Gravissimum Educationis (Paramount Importance of Education)– Declaration on Christian Education

Nostra Aetate (In Our Day) – Declaration on our Relationship to Non-Christian Religions

Dignitatis Humanae (The Dignity of the Human Person) – Right of the Person and Communities to Social and Civil Freedom in Matters Religious

the second vatican ecumenical council22

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

9 Decrees

Ad Gentes Divinitus (Sent by God to the Nations)– Mission Activity of the Church

Presbyterorum Ordinus (The Order of Priests) – Ministry and Life of Priests

Apostolicam Acuositatem (To Intensify the Apostalate) – Apostolate of the Laity

Optatam Totius (Desired of the Whole Church) – Training of Priests

Perfectae Caritatis (Perfect Charity) – Up-to-Date Renewal of Religious Life

the second vatican ecumenical council23

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

9 Decrees (continued)

Christus Dominus (Christ the Lord) – Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church

Unitas Redintegratio (The Restoration of Unity) – Decree on Ecumenism

Orientalium Ecclesiarum (Churches of the Orient) – Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches

Inter Mirifica (Among the Wonderful) – Decree on the Mass Media

the second vatican ecumenical council24

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Lumen Gentium

Dei Verbum

Sacrosanctum Concilium

Gaudium et Spes

Apostolicam Acuositatem

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Lumen Gentium

The hub document

The Mystery of the Church

Membership includes Christ’s followers and those who have died in union with Christ – Mary, the Saints in Heaven and the souls in Purgatory

It is a union of the divine and the human

The people of God are the foundation

Hierarchy exists as the trained ordained ministers of God who stand for the apostles

Pope is still the head of the Church (Peter)

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Lumen Gentium (continued)

Emphasis on the marks of the Church:

One Holy Catholic Apostolic

If one knows that “The Catholic Church was made necessary by God through Jesus Christ [and] would refuse to enter her or to remain in her [he/she] could not be saved.”

The council builds on tradition and does not conflict with it

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Lumen Gentium (continued)

Preservation of the divine deposit of faith is of prime importance

Provisions are made for the Diaconate

Mary is given special honor

The Blessed Virgin is a model of faithful discipleship – she is a member of the Church, Mother of the Church and mediatrix (warning: don’t get extreme)

the second vatican ecumenical council28

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Lumen Gentium (continued)

NOTHING in this or any of the documents teaches:

Optional Mass attendance & reception of the sacraments

Abortion, divorce, gay marriage, married clergy

Not reading scripture and seek holiness

Non-submission to the pope

Subjective religious truth

That all religions are equally valid

the second vatican ecumenical council29

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Dei Verbum

God invites us into a personal relationship with Him

Through Sacred Scripture we come to know God with “ease, with solid certitude, and with no trace of error.”

The Bible is “the Word of God in human words”

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Dei Verbum (continued)

“The Church, in her teaching life, and worship, perpetuates and hands on to all generations all that she herself is, all that she believes” (Sacred Tradition)

Sacred Tradition grows and becomes richer as our leaders, guided by the Holy Spirit, lead to a deeper and fuller understanding of the truth.

Nothing in Sacred Tradition can contradict Sacred Scripture

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Dei Verbum (continued)

Christians should read the Bible and are urged to use modern methods of interpretation

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Gaudium et Spes

Man is inherently good and dignified – we are created by God

Christ died to save each and every individual human being

We are given free will but sin reduces our options

Christians should not judge persons but their actions

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Gaudium et Spes (continued)

Rights of each person

Everything necessary for leading a life truly human; e.g., food, clothing, shelter

To choose a state of life and to found a family

An education, employment, good reputation

Respect

Appropriate information

Protection of privacy

Freedom in matters of religion

Special rights of women

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Gaudium et Spes (continued)

Denunciations

Any opposition to life (abortion, euthanasia, murder)

All forms of slavery

Prostitution

Pornography

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Apostolicam Actuositatem

Apostolate = to carry on the mission of Christ

First ecumenical document on the laity

Vatican II often called “the council of the laity”

The laity are members of God’s “Royal Priesthood” and thus offer “priestly sacrifices” in their daily lives, witness, and words

Lay people are in the world not just Church

Unique social justice in service to the poor, etc.

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Apostolicam Actuositatem (continued)

Vatican II attempts to renew zeal and love

We should be nourished in the Liturgy

Gifts of the Holy Spirit are to be manifested for the common good

Bishops must develop lay ministries and services and systems to train lay ministers (caution: ordained clergy are still the authorities)

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Sacrosanctum Concilium

The summit of all Church activity is the Liturgy

Only in worship do all our good works make sense

All our sacrifices [for family, for others, for God] are offered to God the Father with the Lord’s body

We get access to the fountain of grace that flows from the font of the Cross of Jesus Christ

The Church exists primarily to worship God

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Sacrosanctum Concilium (continued)

BUT, it is possible to participate in the Liturgy without living out its grace and teaching in everyday life

We must come to the Mass with the proper disposition

We must follow through with prayer

We must fully and consciously participate in the Liturgy

the second vatican ecumenical council39

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Sacrosanctum Concilium (continued)

Streamline by “Noble Simplicity”

Avoid needless repetition

Respect people’s power of comprehension

Emphasize Holy Scripture and promote love for the word of God

Conduct the Liturgy in the language of the people

Restore the Catechumenate (RCIA)

Open up the Church for all peoples everywhere

End the isolationism of the past 400 years

the second vatican ecumenical council40

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Sacrosanctum Concilium (continued)

Increase involvement by the laity

Introduce prayers to increase participation such as “Prayer of the Faithful”

Replace Extreme Unction with Anointing of the Sick

Renew directions for Sacred Music, art, and furnishings

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Sacrosanctum Concilium (continued)

Emphasize the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

(Sometimes we forget how special we are)

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The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

For your consideration:

Were bishops and priests too zealous in their adoption of Vatican II changes?

Was the “plan” adequate?

Did the laity take extreme liberties?

Was there sufficient apologia about the changes?

Did some expect more out of Vatican II?

the second vatican ecumenical council44

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Was it…

The best thing that ever happened to the Church?

Or

The worst thing that ever happened to the Church?

the second vatican ecumenical council45

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Two Books every Catholic family should own

the second vatican ecumenical council46

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

Bibliography

Flannery, Austin, O.P., The Basic Sixteen Documents of Vatican Council II (Newport, NY, Costello Publishing Company, Inc., 1996)

Shreck, Alan, Vatican II: The Crisis and the Promise (Cincinnati, Servant Books, 2005)

McEnroy, Carmel, Guests in Their Own House (NY, Crossroad Publishing Co., 1996)

Davies, Michael, Liturgical Time Bombs in Vatican II (Rockford, IL, Tan Books & Publishers, Inc., 2003)

McBride, Alfred, A short History of the Mass (Cincinnati, St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2006)

Vatican II Productions, The Faithful Revolution: Vatican II (Lyrick Studios, distributor, 1997) 5 volume video series

Koch, Carl, A Popular History of the Catholic Church (Winona, MN, Saint Mary’s Press, 1997)

Chaput, Charles J., Render Unto Caesar (NY, Doubleday, 2008)

the second vatican ecumenical council47

The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council

www.st-jerome-cinci.org/VaticanII