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VATICAN COUNCIL II THE 21 ST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL. WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL? COMMUNION OF PARTICULAR CHURCHES PATRIARCHATES RITES E-W/ IN COMMUNION NICAEA I THE FIRST SEVEN THE (WESTERN) 21 TRENT VATICAN I VATICAN II How different? The major documents Some Effects

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vatican council ii the 21 st ecumenical council
VATICAN COUNCIL IITHE 21ST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL

WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL?

COMMUNION OF PARTICULAR CHURCHES

PATRIARCHATES

RITES E-W/ IN COMMUNION

NICAEA I

THE FIRST SEVEN

THE (WESTERN) 21

TRENT

VATICAN I

VATICAN II

How different?

The major documents

Some Effects

Resources/websites

effects of vatican council ii
EFFECTS OF VATICAN COUNCIL II
  • PART OF THE STORY IS HISTORICAL

“19TH AND 20TH CENTURY “RESOURCEMENT”

Biblical studies, historical studies, archaeology, globalization, technological development…

  • PART OF THE STORY IS THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTER OF VATICAN COUNCIL II
what s an ecumenical council
WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL?

An assembly (Gk. synodos; Lat. concilium) of representatives (episcopoi) of the whole (i.e., catholic) church for consultation and decision regarding ecclesial matters.

what is the catholic church
What is the ‘catholic’ ‘church’

A church (ekklesia) is a community of Christians who assemble for public worship

A particular church is such an assembly, ususally in a particular geographical location, presided over by a “supervisor” (i.e., episkopos (Gk.)= ‘bishop’)

what is the catholic church1
What is the ‘catholic’ ‘church’
  • “catholic” refers to a relationship among particular churches called (Gk.) koinonia, “communion.”
  • The first recorded use of the term “catholic” in this way is from c. 100 AD in Ignatius of Antioch’s Letter to the Smyrneans
slide6

REGISTERS AN ANCIENT GREEK EXPERIENCE

  • KATA-HOLIKOS
    • “kata”- a preposition that is roughly equivalent to the English “through” or “through-out” (or “together with”
    • An example: “kata Johannen” meaning (the good news) “through John.”
    • “holos, holikos”- a noun meaning, the whole (world), everything, all
kata holike through out the whole
kata-holike: “through-out-the-whole”
  • Modern use of this term as a denominational label (a sect) is the opposite of “sectarian”
  • A particular church is ‘catholic insofar as it is “in communion” with the “whole”
  • Synods (Gk., synods) and councils (Lat. Concilium) are called to achieve or confirm

communion in or among patriarchates

patriarchates
PATRIARCHATES
  • an autonomous, self-governing federation of particular churches (dioceses) under the jurisdiction of a chief bishop called a “patriarch” and his “synod.”
  • Early Christian Patriarchates: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandra, Antioch, Jerusalem
  • Additional Patriarchates have been added in modern times
rites e w in communion
RITES E-W/ IN COMMUNION
  • Based on the regional differences of the patriarchates, distinct liturgical traditions developed (leiturgia=“public work”, “work of the people” (i.e., the worshipping assembly)
  • Traditionally, “catholicity” of particular churches has been ensured by being “in communion with” the Bishop of Rome in his function as “president of the college of bishops”
what s in a name
What’s in a name?
  • Confusion often occurs because the Bishop of Rome actually has several titles and functions:

Here are a few:

    • Bishop of Rome (local bishop for city of Rome)
    • Patriarch of the West (chief bishop of churches of the Roman Latin Rite)
    • Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church (Lat., pontifex= “bridge”-“maker”.
rites
RITES

AT PRESENT THERE ARE 21 RITES OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. THE MOST WELL KNOWN ARE:

LATIN (ROMAN) ETHIOPIAN

ARMENIAN MARONITE

BYZANTINE EAST-SYRIAN

COPTIC WEST- SYRIAN

what s an ecumenical council1
WHAT’S AN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL?

An assembly (Gk. synodos; Lat. concilium) of representatives (episcopoi) of the whole (i.e., catholic) church for consultation and decision regarding ecclesial matters.

Gk.: oikoumenikos fr. oikumene, “the whole (inhabited) world”, fr. oikos=“household”

why ecumenical councils
WHY ECUMENICAL COUNCILS?
  • TABLE 1.1
  • Christian Growth Projected at 40 Percent per Decade 
  • Year Number of Christians Percent of Populationa
  • 40 1,000 0.0017
  • 50 1,400 0.0023
  • 100 7,530 0.0126
  • 150 40,496 0.07
  • 200 217,795 0.36
  • 250 1,171,356 1.9
  • 300 6,299,832 10.5
  • 350 33,882,008 56.5
  • aBased on an estimated population of 60 million. 
nicaea i
NICAEA I
  • AD 325- THE FIRST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL
  • EDICT OF MILAN 313:LEGALIZED CHRISTIANITY
  • CALLED BY ROMAN EMPEROR CONSTANTINE TO RESOLVE THE “ARIAN” CONTROVERSY
  • ATTENDED BY 300 + BISHOPS
  • PROFESSION OF FAITH (NICENE CREED)
  • NICENE-CONSTANTINOPOLITAN CREED
  • Academic.regis.edu/rlumpp
the first seven councils named for location
THE FIRST SEVEN COUNCILS(named for location)
  • NICAEA I 325
  • CONSTANTINOPLE I 381
  • EPHESUS 431
  • CHALCEDON 451
  • CONSTANTINOPLE II 553
  • CONSTANTINOPLE III 680-81
  • NICAEA II 787
21 ecumenical councils
21 ECUMENICAL COUNCILS
  • Recognized by the Catholic Church
  • Only First Seven Recognized by Orthodox Churches
  • Eastern Rites typically have two Forms—Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic
  • They are distinguished principally by whether or not they are “in communion” with Rome
council of trent
COUNCIL OF TRENT
  • THREE SESSIONS: 1545-47, 1551-52, 1562-63
  • RESPONDED TO THE CHALLENGES POSED BY THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION (NB: 1517)
  • DEALT MAINLY WITH WESTERN CONCERNS

(No Reformation in East)

  • FIXED WESTERN (LATIN) CHURCH FOR 400 YRS
  • PARADIGM EXPANDED GEOGRAPHICALLY WITH EUROPEAN COLONIZATION
  • MADE THE WESTERN (ROMAN) UNIFORM
vatican council i
VATICAN COUNCIL I
  • 1869-1870
  • 774 (1/3 Italians-2/3 Europeans) 48 US
  • UNIFICATION OF ITALY (NB: Regis)
    • END OF PAPAL STATES (1861)
    • END OF CONTROL OF ROME (1870)
    • CREATION OF VATICAN CITY STATE (1929)
  • THREE MAIN FACTIONS:
    • INFALLIBILISTS
    • GENERAL SUPPORTERS OF PAPL AUTHORITY
    • DECENTRALISTS
vatican council ii
VATICAN COUNCIL II

IMMEDIATE BACKGROUND

PIUS XII 1939-1958

  • PAPAL NUNCIO TO GERMANY 1917 ff.
  • PAPAL SECRETARY OF STATE 1930-39
  • TRIED TO PREVENT WAR THROUGH DIPLOMACY
  • PERHAPS NAÏVE ABOUT HITLER
  • WANTED TO PROTECT CHURCH VS. FASCISM, NAZISM & COMMUNISM
  • ENCOURAGED BIBLICAL AND LITURGICAL SCHOLARSHIP
vatican council ii1
VATICAN COUNCIL II

IMMEDIATE BACKGROUND

POPE JOHN XXIII1958-1963

  • PAPAL DIPLOMAT—ACCESSIBLE AND FRIENDLY
  • EXPECTED TO BE A CARETAKER
  • ASTONISHED THE WORLD BY CALLING COUNCIL: AGGIORNAMENTO
  • PASTORAL IN CHARACTER
  • ECUMENICAL
  • CONCERN FOR PEACE (Missile Crisis)
vatican council ii2
VATICAN COUNCIL II
  • FOUR SESSIONS: 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965
  • 2,600 BISHOPS (Vat I 737)
    • 1089 European
    • 489 South American
    • 404 North America
    • 374 Asia
    • 296 Africa
    • 84 Central America
    • 75 Oceania
vatican council ii3
VATICAN COUNCIL II

SOME FIRSTS

  • OBSERVERS FROM EVERY MAJOR CHRISTIAN GROUP
  • ELECTRICITY, TELEPHONES,TYPEWRITERS, TRANSPORATION
  • MEDIA COVERAGE
  • LAY WOMEN AND MEN
vatican council ii4
VATICAN COUNCIL II

THE PROCESS

  • AGENDA ITEMS (9300) SOUGHT FROM
    • ALL BISHOPS
    • RELIGIOUS ORDERS
    • UNIVERSITIES AND THEOLOGICAL FACULTIES
vatican council ii5
VATICAN COUNCIL II
  • PREPARATORY COMMISSIONS DRAFTED
  • BISHOPS REJECTED AND REDRAFTED MUCH OF WHAT THEY WERE GIVEN
  • CHURCH BUREAUCRACY UNDERMINED
vatican council ii6
VATICAN COUNCIL II

WHAT THE COUNCIL PRODUCED

  • DOGMATIC CONSITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION
  • DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CHURCH
  • CONSTITUTION ON SACRED LITURGY
  • PASTORAL CONSTITUTION ON CHURCH IN THE MODERN WORLD
vatican council ii7
VATICAN COUNCIL II

WHAT THE COUNCIL PRODUCED

DECREES ON

  • SOCIAL COMMUNICATION
  • ECUMENISM
  • EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES
  • BISHOPS’ PASTORAL OFFICE
vatican council ii8
VATICAN COUNCIL II
  • PRIESTLY FORMATION
  • RENEWAL OF RELIGIOUS LIFE
  • APOSTOLATE OF THE LAITY
  • MINISTRY AND LIFE OF PRIESTS
  • MISSIONARY ACTIVITY
  • CHRISTIAN EDUCATION
  • RELATIONSHIP TO NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS
  • RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
vatican council ii9
VATICAN COUNCIL II
  • THE TRADITION IS THAT IT TAKES 100 YEARS FOR A MAJOR COUNCIL TO BE FULLY IMPLEMENTED.
  • WHAT ARE SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF VATICAN II SO FAR?
key themes in vatican ii
KEY THEMES IN VATICAN II
  • CHURCH IS PRIMARILY MYSTERY/SACRAMENT RATHER THAN ORGANIZATION/INSTITUTION
  • CHURCH IS WHOLE PEOPLE OF GOD NOT JUST HIERARCHY, CLERGY, RELIGIOUS
  • CHURCH’S MISSION INCLUDES WORK FOR PEACE AND JUSTICE
  • CHURCH INCLUDES ALL CHRISTIANS NOT ONLY CATHOLIC CHIRSTIANS (Degree)
key themes in vatican ii1
KEY THEMES IN VATICAN II

5. CHURCH IS COMMUNION OF LOCAL CHURCHES NOT JUST UNITS OF UNIVERSAL

6. CHURCH IS ESCATOLOGICAL COMMUNITY, NOT YET THE KINGDOM OF GOD

7. LAY PEOPLE HAVE THEIR OWN INTRINSIC MISSION, NOT JUST AGENTS OF HIERARCHY

8. THERE ARE LEVELS OF TRUTH—NOT ALL TEACHINGS ARE OF EQUAL IMPORTANCE

key themes in vatican ii2
KEY THEMES IN VATICAN II
  • GOD USES OTHER CHRISTIAN CHURCHES AND NON-CHRISTIAN RELIGIONS TO OFFER SALVATION TO ALL HUMANKIND

10. THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON AND THE FREEDOM OF FAITH ARE FOUNDATIONS OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY FOR ALL HUMANS

some effects of vatican ii
SOME EFFECTS OF VATICAN II
  • CHANGE FROM LATIN TO VERNACULAR IN THE ASSEMBLY ENHANCED LOCAL IDENTITIES OF PARTICULAR CHURCHES

(Constitution on Liturgy)

  • ATTENTION TO “INCULTURATION”

(Constitution on Church)

  • EMPHASIS ON THE PEOPLE VS. INSTITUTION

(Constitution on Church)

some effects of vatican ii1
SOME EFFECTS OF VATICAN II
  • FOCUS ON ISSUES OF PEACE AND JUSTICE AS CENTRAL TO CHURCH’S MISSION

(Constitution on Church in Modern World)

  • INCLUSION OF LAY PERSONS IN KEY LITURGICAL ROLES EMPOWERS PERSONS TO SEE THEMSELVES AS ACTORS(Readers, ministers of communion, prayer leaders, musicians)
  • DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ROLLS

(DRE’s, liturgists, administrators, teachers)

some effects of vatican ii2
SOME EFFECTS OF VATICAN II
  • COLLABORATION WITH PERSONS OF OTHER FAITHS AND COLLABORATION WITH OTHER CHURCHES AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS FOR PEACE AND JUSTICE WORK
  • ENCOURAGEMENT OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL ACTIVISM
  • MORE ACTIVE ROLES FOR WOMEN