Logic & Reasoning • Explanation • Argument • Premise • Inference • Final Conclusion
Bob is barfy. On account that the nurse can give Bob something to help him feel better, therefore, Bob should go to the nurse.
Since Fred can type 200 words a minute, he types fast.
Smallpox is no longer a threat to anyone in the US. And the vaccination against it is unpleasant and, in rare cases, life-threatening. We were wise when we ceased the routine vaccination of our children.
Bamboo can grow up to four feet a day, but only after it is well established. This can take from three to five years, depending on the type of bamboo.
The Taipei study of the spread of SARS doesn’t establish its conclusion at all. The sample for the study was too small and wholly unrepresentative of the total population.
Younger children benefit more from flu shots than older people, so the government should worry more about making sure kids get flu shots.
GPAs at NKU should be higher this year. Since NKU increased admissions standards last year, students are better this year.
Arguments Simple Argument • Premise (Inference) • Final Conclusion ---OR--- • (More than one) Premise(s) (Only ONE Inference) • Final Conclusion
Arguments Complex Argument • Premise (Inference) • Intermediate Conclusion (Premise) (Inference) • Final Conclusion --OR-- • (Multiple) Premise(s) • (Multiple) Intermediate Conclusion(s) (Premises) • Final Conclusion (Any number of Ps and ICs in any combination, but leading to only one FC)
Arguments Complex Argument Example • Premise • Premise (Inference) • Intermediate Conclusion (Premise) • Premise • Premise (Inference) • Intermediate Conclusion (Premise) • Final Conclusion
Pink elephants can fly because twelve people on safari witnessed this.
It looks like a duck. It sounds like a duck. It even walks like a duck. It must be a duck.
If an automobile is no longer being made, it earns antique status after 10 years. Since Chrysler no longer makes LeBaron convertibles, you can get antique plates for your 15-year-old LeBaron.
Joe could save a lot of money. Since he only drinks freshly-brewed fru-fru coffee, he goes to Starbuck’s rather than saving money with the vending machine coffee.
Evaluating Arguments • Deductive Arguments • Sound Arguments • Nondeductive Arguments • Successful • Nonsuccessful
The last person to see the victim alive must have been the murderer, and Wainsworth was the last person to see the victim alive. Thus, Wainsworth must have committed the murder.
All Democrats are liberals. All liberals want more government spending. Thus, all Democrats want more government spending.
Most people who read The New Republic are liberals. Freedman reads The New Republic. Freedman is a liberal.
In the phone survey, 58% of the registered voters intending to vote in the election said thy planned to vote for Larson. Larson will receive about 58% of the votes in the election.
We have probable cause to believe that Joe committed the crime. His fingerprints were on the weapon, his DNA was found on the victim, and two independent witnesses testified that they saw him stab the victim.
500 of the 2,000 Cactus County Public Library cardholders were randomly selected and asked whether they prefer fiction or nonfiction. 338 said they prefer fiction. Thus, you can be that most of Cactus County cardholders prefer fiction.
Since Sandy has a proven IQ of 153 and is an experienced test-taker, she will do very well on the law school admissions exams next week.
I asked several other students in my Advanced Algebra class what they thought of Professor Stewart’s Intro to English Literature class last semester. Most of them were really bored with the lit class. So, Professor Stewart must be a really boring teacher. I’m not sure I want to take his class.
No former First Lady who subsequently became a US Senator has ever gone on to be President of the US. So none will ever be President.