The 3 Waves of Immigration Historians have identified three time periods of increased immigration rates to the United States
A Virtual Tour of Ellis Island • Found at: http://youtu.be/5rredHTyKaQ
The “Old” Wave 1820-1880 • This wave of immigrants come mostly from Northern and Western European countries. • They were primarily coming from Ireland and Germany. • They were leaving their nations due to poverty and political turmoil in their home countries. In Ireland there was a potato famine devastating many farms and in Germany a change of political authority and difficulty buying land. • They are coming in mostly in family groups to resettle in America. • Many came to America for the vast land opportunities; to own and farm the land. • Most were Protestant in their religion, with the exception of the Irish, which were mostly Roman Catholic. • Many spoke English, except the German, and most were Caucasian.
The “New” Wave 1880-1920 • This wave of immigrants came primarily from Southern and Eastern European nations. • They came in much larger numbers than the “old” wave. • They came mostly from Russia, Italy, Austria-Hungary • Many men came alone without their families to find work, some would stay in America, and bring over family members, but many would return to their homeland. • Many came to America because of lack of work and economic hard times in their homelands, while others came to escape political or religious persecution. • Many were from varied religious groups (Jewish, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox) and cultures very different from those in the America. • Many were from Slavic nations and not of Anglo-Saxon heritage. • Most did not speak English.
Immigration Experience • Your Goal: To find the group of people who are singing the same song as you! • How does this exercise relate to immigration and an immigrant’s experience once they arrived in America?
Chinese Immigration 1850-1883 • This group of immigrants came into America mostly during the “old” wave of immigration but were more like those that came during the “new” wave. • They came to America after learning of the “gold rush” in California in 1849 and often referred to America as “Gold Mountain”. • The were the most “different” group to come America during this time period. • The were very different in culture, religion, and race from most Americans= more discrimination than other immigrants…although each group would experience some form of discrimination. • Anti-Chinese sentiment was so strong during this period that Congress wrote a law, passed in 1882 limited Chinese immigration. It was called the Chinese Exclusion Act- 10 yrs no more Chinese!
The “Present” Wave 1965-Today • This wave of immigration is still bringing in new comers to America. • They are mostly from Latin American and Southeast Asian nations, but in the last few years many are from the Middle-East and India. • These are legal immigrants who are granted entry to the U.S. because they fill needed jobs here in America or need to be protected by the United States from oppression in their homeland. • They bring many new religions and cultures to the United States and continue to shape and challenge American society.
Nativism • Nativism: Favoritism toward native born Americans • “Right Countries” German, British, and Scandinavian Immigrants were more accepted • This lead to anti immigrant groups and immigration restrictions • Rise of Know-Nothings, Chinese Exclusion Act, Gentleman’s Agreement, KKK • Congress passed a bill requiring immigrant to be able to read 40 words in English or they were refused Entry in the U.S. • Finally Naturalization laws – 1921,1924 - Quotas
Follow-Up Create your own political cartoon Include the following: 1. illustrations/clip art 2. captions/ words to clarify 3. title On back of cartoon/separate sheet: 1. describe what is happening in the cartoon 2. explain the underlying message/meaning CAN BE IMMIGRATION TODAY!!