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Ethics in Applied Behavior Analysis. Topic #6 ED 553: Assessing Effective Treatments for Children with Autism. What Formal Training Should Behavior Analysts Have?. Accredited to provide training in behavior analysis at doctorate or master’s level www.Abainternational.org

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ethics in applied behavior analysis

Ethics in Applied Behavior Analysis

Topic #6

ED 553: Assessing Effective Treatments for Children with Autism

what formal training should behavior analysts have
What Formal Training Should Behavior Analysts Have?
  • Accredited to provide training in behavior analysis at doctorate or master’s level www.Abainternational.org
    • Master’s in behavior analysis
      • courses must provide instruction in behavior analyst approaches to research and/or in conceptual issues
      • program must include a thesis, review paper or general examination based on behavior-analytic approaches
    • Doctorate in behavior analysis
      • course of study must provide instruction in behavior analytic approaches to research and/or in conceptual issues
      • Include advanced curriculum topics in a specialized area of nonhuman and or human basic research literature, research methods, and one or more applied areas
      • Dissertation in required in which questions and methods are based on a behavior-analytic approaches to issues
what formal training should behavior analysts have3
What Formal Training Should Behavior Analysts Have?
  • The more severe a behavior problem, the more extensive the training should be
    • only doctorate level behavior analysts should treat severe behavior problems
  • Behavior analysts should attend professional conferences & workshops in behavior analysis to stay current in the field
what experience should behavior analysts have
What Experience Should Behavior Analysts Have?
  • Accredited programs don’t yet guarantee that individuals have the necessary training to teach individuals with developmental disabilities
  • Supervised experience in teaching individuals with autism for at least 1-2 years (BACB requires 9-18 months)
  • It is recommended that supervision be provided by a doctoral level behavior analyst
what professional organizations should behavior analysts belong to
What Professional Organizations should Behavior Analysts Belong To?
  • Association for Behavior Analysis
    • www.abainternational.org
  • NJ Association for Behavior Analysis
    • www.NJABA.org
  • COSAC
    • www.njcosac.org
summary of components of the behavior analyst certification board bacb www bacb com
Summary of Components of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) www.bacb.com
  • Education
    • 5-6 courses in BA
  • Experience
    • 9-18 months
  • National Board Written Exam
  • Discipline
  • Continuing Education
    • 36 Continuing Education Units (CEUs) in 3 years
    • 1 CEU = 50 minutes of instruction of symposia
    • 1 grad course = 15 hours of continuing education
  • Code of Ethics
bacb guidelines for responsible conduct for behavior analysts
BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts
  • Responsible Conduct of a Behavior Analyst
  • The Behavior Analyst’s Responsibility to Clients
  • The Behavior Analyst’s Pre-Intervention Behavior
  • The Behavior Analyst and the Individual Behavior Change Program
  • The Behavior Analysts as Teacher and/or Supervisor
bacb guidelines for responsible conduct for behavior analysts9
BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysts
  • The Behavior Analyst and the Workplace
  • The Behavior Analysts an research Behavior Analysts design and Conduct
  • The Behavior Analyst’s Ethical Responsibility to the Field of Behavior Analysis
  • The Behavior Analyst’s Ethical Responsibility to Colleagues
  • The Behavior Analysts Ethical Responsibility to Society
  • www.Bacb.org
concerns about aba
Concerns about ABA
  • Behavior Modification
  • Behavioral Techniques
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
applied behavior analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Learning principles must be applied to change socially important behavior.
  • Must investigate observable and quantifiable behavior that is objectively defined
  • clear evidence of a functional relationship between the behavior to be changed and the experimenters’ intervention must exist.
misunderstandings
Misunderstandings
  • Behavioral approaches are too much work and provide too little reinforcement
  • Behaviorism contradicts the popular developmental view of education and psychology
  • Behavior analysis is a threat to the prevailing power structures in education and psychology
  • Positive reinforcement is a practice that often lacks social acceptability and undermines intrinsic reinforcement
  • Behavior analysis fails to glorify human beings as do other psychologies and philosophies
ethical procedures
Ethical Procedures
  • Community standards
  • Laws
  • Prevailing philosophies
  • Individual freedom
  • Responsibility of the clients through informed consent
  • Clients’ attitudes and feelings
  • Social validity (consumer satisfaction)
    • Questionnaires, interviews, surveys
ethical procedures14
Ethical Procedures
  • Goals, procedures & outcomes must be acceptable to the consumers of education –students, parents and the community
ethical procedures15
Ethical Procedures
  • We propose that individuals who are recipients or potential recipients of treatment designed to change their behavior have the right to

1. A therapeutic environment

2. Services whose overriding goal is personal welfare

    • Treatment by a competent behavior analyst
    • Programs that teach functional skills
    • Behavioral assessment and ongoing evaluation
    • The most effective treatment procedures available

Executive Council for the Association for Behavior Analysis

therapeutic environment
Therapeutic Environment
  • Safe, humane, responsive to individual needs, enjoyable (choice), and least restrictive
  • Minimally dignified treatment requires sanitation, cleanliness, comfort, and attempts at respectful communication and consent and age-appropriateness
services whose overriding goal is personal welfare
Services Whose Overriding Goal is Personal Welfare
  • Appropriate goal setting
  • Students and parents must voluntarily agree to the goals and be informed of them
    • Informed consent –based on full understanding of the planned program –includes possible risks
    • Voluntary consent –may be obtained only if neither threats nor rewards are used to acquire such consent
treatment by a competent behavior analyst
Treatment by a Competent Behavior Analyst
  • “A teacher buys a bag of candy & proceeds to hand out “reinforcement” indiscriminately”
    • –this is potentially harmful!
  • Principles are easy to understand –implementation, however, is not so simple
  • Must have academic & ongoing hands-on training, supervision & evaluation
  • Nationally Board Certified Behavior Analyst
    • National certification issued by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board www.BACB.com
programs that teach functional skills
Programs that Teach Functional Skills
  • Relative to the individuals needs of a particular student
  • Each individual is capable of full participation in community life and has a right to such participation
  • Consider the environment in which a particular individual will live when making decisions about what functional skills to teach
  • Behaviors that lead to improved learning or social interaction should be taught to all students.
behavioral assessment ongoing evaluation
Behavioral Assessment & Ongoing Evaluation
  • Goals & Obj must be based on careful observation of what the student does under a variety of conditions
  • Ongoing evaluation is necessary to ensure skill acquisition
the most effective treatment procedures available
The Most Effective Treatment Procedures Available
  • Proven effectiveness in science means that a particular technique will also change similar behavior in similar students
    • E.g., chemotherapy & radiation or Ginger
  • Review literature in professional, peer-reviewed journals –JABA
  • Still need parental consent and follow school guidelines (human rights review board) for decreasing behavior procedures such as time out
accountability
Accountability
  • to the profession, community, administrators, parents, students & yourself
  • Publication of goals, procedures, and results so that they may be evaluated by parents, teachers, and administrators
    • Goals are stated behaviorally
    • Procedures described clearly
    • Results are in terms of direct, functional relationships between interventions and resultant behavior change