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Applied Behavior Analysis. Using behavioral approach in applied setting: Schools Institutions Industrial settings, hospitals, etc. Animal training Behavior Analysts are psychologists, teachers, speech pathologists, audiologists, etc. who are certified in behavior analysis.

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applied behavior analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Using behavioral approach in applied setting:
    • Schools
    • Institutions
    • Industrial settings, hospitals, etc.
    • Animal training
  • Behavior Analysts are psychologists, teachers, speech pathologists, audiologists, etc. who are certified in behavior analysis
applied behavior analysis2
Applied Behavior Analysis
  • What do they do?
    • Evaluate the situation and figure out
      • The antecedants
      • The behavior
      • The consequences
      • The ABC’s of behavior
    • Conduct a functional analysis
    • Create a behavioral program to change the behavior
    • Evaluate the program
functional analysis
Functional Analysis
  • Determining the function of the behavior
  • Trying to find what contingencies maintain the behavior
    • Can be environmental
    • Can be “internal” environmental effects
  • Must “listen” or observe behavior to determine causes!
using reward and punishment
Using Reward and Punishment
  • Important to tailor the program to the clients
    • Not a one-size fits all
    • Use the functional analysis to determine program
  • Important ethical guidelines
    • Make individual as successful as possible
    • Make individual as independent as possible
    • Reduce the reliance on outside sources of reinforcement and punishment
effective reinforcement procedures in applied settings
Effective Reinforcement Procedures in Applied Settings:
  • Must be effective
  • Must be able to predict a priori the:
    • direction of behavior change
    • magnitude of reinforcement effect
  • Must be highly flexible across different populations and settings
traditional models of reinforcement
Traditional Models of Reinforcement:
  • Rely on transituational approaches to reinforcement
  • “Once a reinforcer, always a reinforcer”
  • Produced catalog of items, but not good efficacy or reliability
  • Do not really allow a priori predictions
alternative
Alternative:
  • Think of reinforcers as something you want
  • Punishment as something you don’t want
  • Time out is extinction from reward and too much “nothing”
disequilibrium models
Disequilibrium models:
  • Idea that we are at a state of equilibrium
    • If we don’t have enough we will work to get more
    • If we have too much we will work to get less
  • How make something reinforcing?
    • Take it away
    • Give the person less of it
    • Sell it!
    • Can be anything or any activity the person wants
why not use negative reinforcement
Why not use negative reinforcement?
  • Side effects: don’t like the person delivering negative reinforcer
  • Uneven and sporadic behavior
  • Strong stimulus cues: only behave when “sD” is around: when teacher not there, the kids go wild!
punishment effects
Punishment effects
  • Traditional Definition: Any contingent event which results in a decrease in operant responding
  • New Definition: Punishment effects are Produced when schedule constraints produce a state of of disequilibrium
  • Give the individual “Too much” of something contingent on a behavior
guidelines for using positive punishment
Guidelines for using positive punishment
  • Behavior must be dangerous to person or others
  • No chance to interrupt and reinforce “good” behavior
  • Tried other alternatives
rules for using time out
Rules for Using Time-Out
  • 1 minute per year of age
  • Must be quiet to get the timer to start
  • Cannot use for dangerous, disruptive or self-stimulatory behavior
  • Must really be “time out” from other rewards
negative punishment
Negative Punishment
  • Response cost: your response costs you something or some behavior
  • Two parts to OVERCORRECTION
    • Restitution: reinstatement of environment (clean up)
    • Positive practice: practice better response for situation
    • Can also use satiation/habituation
can use others as model
Can use others as Model!
  • We learn by watching others
  • Bandura noted this and developed a theory about how modeling occurs:
    • Described the process of observational learning in terms of social, personal and developmental competencies
  • Mixes old and new terms
    • Rewards convey information
    • Incentive motivation = reinforcement
    • Vicarious learning = reward by watching
what is modeling
What is modeling?
  • Subject watches a model engage in a novel behavior
  • Time delay
  • Test the subject: will the subject perform the novel behavior when put in that setting?
four mechanisms of modeling
Four Mechanisms of Modeling
  • Attentional Processes
    • the person doing the modeling must pay attention
    • distinctiveness/characteristics of observer and model important
  • Retentional Processes
    • must be able to remember what happened!
    • Cognitive abilities play a role here
  • Motoric Processes
    • must be able to physically reproduce behavior
    • physical status important here
  • Reward Processes
    • reinforcement and punishment for continuing the behavior
    • intrinsic (internal) vs extrinsic (external) reward play a role
attentional processes
Attentional processes
  • Subject must attend to model
  • Several influencing factors:
    • Distinctiveness of model: age, sex, status
    • Affective valence
    • Complexity
    • Prevalence
    • Functional value to subject
  • Characteristics of the observer important:
    • Sensory capabilities
    • Arousal level
    • Perceptual set
    • Past reinforcement history
retentional processes
Retentional processes
  • Must be able to remember what was observed
  • Two types of remembering
    • Imaginal
    • Verbal
  • Several influencing factors
    • Symbolic coding
    • Cognitive organization
    • Symbolic rehearsal
motoric processes
Motoric processes
  • Must be able to physically reproduce the behavior
  • Several influencing factors
    • Physical capabilities
    • Availability of component responses (do you know how to put the behaviors together)
    • Self-observation and feedback
    • Accuracy of the feedback
reward processes
Reward processes
  • Must have some motivation for repeating the behavior
    • Must be rewarded yourself after you do the behavior
    • Doesn’t explain the motivation for the first try, but explains what maintains it
  • Several factors
    • External reinforcement
    • Vicarious reinforcement
    • Self-reinforcement
research on social observational learning and modeling
Research on Social/Observational learning and modeling
  • Animals do it!
    • Monkeys on island: one dropped sandy grain in water; grain floated to top….soon all did it!
    • Birds learn and imitate one another
    • Dogs and cats can learn from one another (and rats and horses, etc.)
  • BOBO doll studies by Bandura
    • Preschool age children (originally just boys)
    • Two groups
      • Control group watched nature movie
      • Experimental group watched video of model hitting Bobo the Clown (model used novel behaviors/words)
    • Test: who was more aggressive?
    • Result: those who had observed the model- and they acted just like the model
research on social observational learning and modeling26
Research on Social/Observational learning and modeling
  • Other studies:
  • Television violence:
    • Live action
    • Cartoon
    • News/live
    • Which was worse? Live action or real footage
    • The more realistic the characters, the more likely a child is to imitate
  • Not just aggression
    • Sexual behavior
    • Prosocial behavior such as helping
    • Can use as therapy!
    • We model good and bad behavior!