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Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

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Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

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  1. Applied Behavior Analysisfor Teachers Chapter 7: Developing a Hypothesis for Behavior Change: Functional Assessment and Functional Analysis

  2. Chapter Overview • Behavior and Its Function • The Behavior Support Plan • Development of a Behavior Support Plan • Brief Functional Analysis • Comparative Accuracy • Positive Behavior Support

  3. Antecedents to Inappropriate Behavior • A. Frustration due to: • Response ignorance • Complex materials, lacking in appropriate adaptations • Lack of functional vocabulary to communicate • Goal of performance interruption • B. Understimulation: Boredom • Being ignored • Meaningless repetition beyond criterion • Nonfunctional activity • Pacing too slowly • C. Overstimulation • Environment: For example, number of students, noise • Rate of physical prompting or verbalizations • Pace of activity • D. Environmental expectation or models

  4. Functions Served by Behavior • A. Gain Attention • Social from adult (parent, teacher, paraeducator, etc) • Social from peer • B. Gain Tangible • Object • Activity • Event • C. Gain Sensory Stimulation • Visual, Auditory, Olfactory, Gustatory, Kinesthetic, Proprioceptive • D. Escape Attention/Interactions • Social from adult • Social from peer • E. Escape Task • Demanding or boring task • Setting, activity, or event • F . Escape Internal Stimulation • Painful or discomfort (e.g., ear ache)

  5. Behavior Support Plan • A plan for behavior change that • Summarizes information gathered through various functional assessment strategies • States the hypothesis of the function of the target behavior • Details agreed-upon procedures for behavior change and support (also known as behavior intervention plan – BIP)

  6. Three-term Contingency SD Antecedent Stimulus R Operant Response S Consequence Stimulus

  7. Write each in the following format: Antecedents Behaviors Consequences

  8. Developing a Behavior Support Plan

  9. Step 1: Identify the Problem Behavior • Develop operational definition • Collect initial confirming data • Notify IEP committee members

  10. Step 2: Conduct Screening • Request as needed: health, medications, physical, sensory, learning disability information • Implementation of changes based on screening

  11. Step 3: Conduct Functional Assessment • Employ indirect information gathering strategies (informant assessment) • Behavioral interview • Behavior rating scales (e.g., FAST, BASC, CBCL) • Employ direct information gathering strategies (descriptive assessment) • Anecdotal report • A-B-C analysis • Formulate hypothesis of the function of the behavior

  12. A-B-C Data Sheet Student: Mona Day/Date: Mon 9/16 Location: Classroom Observation Period: 8-10 am Observer: MC Time/ Duration Activity/Context Target Behavior Student Reaction Perceived Function Comments Antecedent Consequence 8:00 1,5 B, D 1, 4 B, A 2, 3 Hand/face washing 1, 5 A, D 1, 2, 4 A, B 2, 1, 3 A, D 1,5 1, 2, 3 B, C 2 Face Slapping 1, 3 8:26 1,5 A, D B, C, E 1 1. Sink A. hand/hand 1. Scream A. redirect/guide A. Attention 1. Stop” 2. Stomp 2. Continue 2. Toilet B. hand/arm B. “No” B. Escape Recording Codes 3. Slap 3. Table C. material C. Restrain 3. Escalate C. Stimulation 4. Snack D. Verbal cue 4. Resist D. Tangible D. Ignore 4. New Behavior E. “No” 5. Teacher E. End Activity 5. Move- run E. Unknown Operational Definitions: Behavior 1: scream – high pitch vocalization above conversational level Behavior 3: slap – hand or fist strikes face or head Behavior 2: stomp – feet strike floor with force beyond used for walking Behavior 4: resist- body pulling in opposition to physical prompt

  13. A-B-C Data: Analysis Questions • Is the behavior occurring within the context of the same activity, materials, instructor, or group of peers? • Does the behavior consistently occur following particular antecedents? What percent of each antecedent appears in the data? • Following instances of the behavior, is there consistent consequence used by the teacher, peers, or other adults? What percent of each consequence appears in the data? • Does the student terminate the behavior following a particular consequence? In what percent of occurrence does the consequence result in the student’s terminating the behavior? • When a consequence is repeatedly followed by the termination of the behavior, is there an implied function? • Does the same S-R-S occur repeatedly, leading to a consistent hypothesis of function across all, or almost all, occurrences of the behavior? What percent of this pattern appears within the data?

  14. Step 4: Functional Analysis • Systematic manipulation of antecedents and consequences to determine their effect on occasioning and maintaining the target behavior • Reasons for conducting a functional analysis: • To verify a hypothesis resulting from a functional assessment • To refine the hypothesis resulting from a functional assessment • To clarify uncertain results of a functional assessment • To serve as the initial step in development of a hypothesis of function • Formulate hypothesis of function

  15. Step 5: Develop Behavior Support Plan • Review hypothesis and select components of behavior support plan • Collect and use data to evaluate and revise plan as necessary • Maintain and generalize successful results and fade intervention as appropriate

  16. Positive Behavior Supports • Application and extension of basic elements of applied behavior analysis • Three-Tiered Prevention Model: • 1) Universal (all students in the environment) • 3-5 positively stated rules – applies to all students in nonclassroom areas • 2)Targeted (for students for which tier one was not adequate to address their behavior needs) • Social skills instruction • Goal to prevent students behavior from becoming disruptive to the learning environment • 3)Intensive (students whose behavior is chronic) • Functional behavior assessment maybe conducted • Implement a function-based intervention