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Chapter 9: The Classic Period 1750-1800

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    1. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Chapter 9: The Classic Period (1750-1800)

    2. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Objectives Learn about the shift in attitude from the extravagance of the Baroque and Rococo to the simplicity, clarity, and balance of the Classic era Examine the relationship between the visual arts of the Greek and Roman classics and the images of the 18th century Classic period Learn about the development of secular music, and especially the sonata as a classic form

    3. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Visual Arts Benjamin West (1738-1820) Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) Constance Marie Charpentier (1767-1849) Antonio Canova (1757-1822) Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867)

    4. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Music Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Haydns 1st trip to London (1790) Haydns 2nd trip to London (1794) Paris Conservatory founded (1795) Beethovens 1st Symphony finished (1799)

    5. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Historical Figures & Events Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria (1740-1780) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ((1749-1832) Ben Franklin experiments with electricity (1751) George III of England reigns (1760-1820) Watts steam engine patented (1769) Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Discovery of oxygen (1774) Marie Antoinettes reign as Queen of France (1774-1793) American Declaration of Independence (1776) Discovery of Hydrogen (1776) Beginning of French Revolution (1789) White House built (1792) Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette of France beheaded (1793)

    6. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Painting Neoclassicism - a return to the supposed classic ideals of the ancients This calm, cool art became a symbol of the revolt against the frivolity and elegance of the French court Lines were clear and formally balanced, in keeping with the Classic ideals of restraint and unity

    7. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Painting Jacques-Louis David Oath of the Horatii, colorplate 44 Leader of the Neoclassic movement in revolutionary France Roman virtue and readiness to die for liberty become the subject of Neoclassic French painting Charpentier Portrait of a Young Woman, called Mlle. Charlotte du Val dOgnes, colorplate 45 Realistic in its details, sharp lines compare to Rococo painting (Bouchers Madame de Pompadour - colorplate 43), Realistic in its details - compared to Rococo painting (Bouchers Madame de Pompadour - colorplate 43), the lines are sharply drawn to emphasize the severity of the figure in contrast to the fragile quality of Bouchers portraitRealistic in its details - compared to Rococo painting (Bouchers Madame de Pompadour - colorplate 43), the lines are sharply drawn to emphasize the severity of the figure in contrast to the fragile quality of Bouchers portrait

    8. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Painting Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Among the last French Neoclassic painters The Odalisque with the Slave, colorplate 46 An advocate of the Davidian style, his works are characterized by sensuousness of line and exotic color Benjamin West One of the first noteworthy painters from America, he studied in Italy and finally settled in England, where he became a friend of King George III The Death of General Wolfe, colorplate 47 Historical subjects were the source of many of his commissions

    9. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Sculpture Antonio Canova Pauline Borghese as Venus, (fig. 9.1, p.226) Following the lead of painting, Canova portrays his patroness as the Greek goddess of love.

    10. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Music The great music of the Classic Period was a product of Germany, not France as in the visual arts It stressed perfection of form, lyric melody, restrained emotional expression, and homophonic texteure Instrumental music was the culmination of the Classic style, although Classic composers also composed for the opera stage. Sonata-allegro form & the Sonata

    11. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Music Development of the Piano was an important influence on the music of the period Classic era music was a revolt against the extravagant and diffuse expression of the Baroque The sonata A 3 or 4 movement work for a single instrument, such as the piano, or for a combination of instruments String quartet (2 violins, viola, cello) Symphony (for an orchestra) Concerto (for solo instrument & orchestra)

    12. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Music The Sonata First movement Sonata-allegro form See outline (ex. 9.1, p.228) Second movement Song form ABA Variation form A A1A2A3etc Third movement Minuet a stately dance form in triple meter Fourth movement Rondo ABACABA

    13. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Music Franz Joseph Haydn Served Prince Esterhzy for 28 years Patronage system still typical for musicians in the Classic era Enormous compositional output due to need to compose and direct all music for the court Helped to develop/perfect the sonata After the Princes death Haydn was free to accept a commission for a set of Symphonies and their performance in London Mozart was influenced by Haydns early works, but Haydns late symphonies show influence from Mozart

    14. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Music Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Recognized as one of the most nearly perfect music composers in the history of Western music He first started to compose before he was 5 ( at age 8 he wrote a symphony, at 11, an oratorio and at 12 an opera). By age 10 his compositions ranked him with the masters of his time He was a child prodigy as a performer (on harpsichord and violin) appearing in court concerts at age 6, touring Paris, London, Vienna and around Europe at age 7 Although his personal life was full of turmoil his music always reflected the Classic periods ideal of objectivity and balance While he desired to be appointed to a position as court composer, he was unable to maintain the patron/servant relationship He became, instead, one of the first freelance musicians, writing in a wide variety of music genres from the operatic stage to chamber music, and from the church to the ballroom

    15. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Music Franz Joseph Haydn Symphony No. 94 in G Major (Surprise) 2nd movement Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G minor 1st movement Don Giovanni Act I - Introduction Piano Concerto in A Major 1st movement

    16. 11/12/2011 Dr. Kirk Weller/Intro to the Arts Next Time Test Ch. 8 & 9