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Articulations (Joints). Connect 2 bones. Classified by structure or function. Classification by structure 1. Fibrous joints - bones held together by fibrous connective tissue 2. Cartilagenous joints - bones held together by cartilage 3. Synovial joints

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Articulations (Joints)

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Connect 2 bones.
  • Classified by structure or function
joint classification
Classification by structure

1. Fibrous joints

- bones held together by fibrous connective tissue

2. Cartilagenous joints

- bones held together by cartilage

3. Synovial joints

- complex structure with cartilage and cavities

Classification by function

1. Synarthroses

Immovable joints

2. Amphiarthrose

Slightly movable joints

3. Diarthroses

Freely movable joints

Joint classification
general background
General background
  • 1 extra joint category

Bony joint (synostosis)

    • Immobile (immovable)
    • Fond when 2 bones ossify together (essentially merge or weld together)
      • Some cranial sutures (fissures in the cranium) become ossified
      • When the growth plate fuses/calcifies over (joining the epiphysis and diaphysis in long bones)
fibrous joint synarthrosis
Fibrous joint (synarthrosis)
  • 1.Suture
  • 2. Gomphosis
  • 3. Syndesmosis
1 sutures
Suture: immobile joints in the skull (the fissures you see) through the thickness of the outer compact bone

-“serrate”= wavy lines (like a serrated knife)

- skull: parieta/frontal bones

“lap”/ “squamous”= diagonal line

Skull: temporal/parietal bones

“plane” / “butt”= straight line

Paired maxillary and palatine bones

1. Sutures
2 gomphosis
2. Gomphosis
  • where teeth attach to bone
      • Tooth is “held in place” by fibrous peridontal ligament” made of collagen that originates from the jaw bone
      • Fibrous “joint” permits slight movement when biting
      • An important sensory mechanism that lets you know how hard or soft you are biting
A chronic lack of vitamin C leads to scurvy

Vitamin C is necessary for collagen synthesis

With decreased collagen synthesis, joints are weakened, wounds do not heal well.

How do you treat scurvy?

3 syndesmosis
3. Syndesmosis
  • Colllagen fibers bind 2 bones
      • More mobility than suture or gomphosis, but still very limited
      • Tibia – fibula at distal end
      • Radius – ulna at distal ends



Note how far apart the radius/ulna are from one another compared to the tibia/fibula. This is one reason why your forearm is more “mobile” or flexible than your lower leg.

cartilaginous joints amphiarthrosis
Synchondoses: when bone is bound /joined byhyaline cartilage

The growth plate in long bones

The first rib attaches to the sternum (ONLY the first rib)

Symphyses: where bones are joined by fibrous cartilage

Pubic bone (pelvis)

Between vertebrae

Cartilaginous joints: (amphiarthrosis)
trick question
Trick question
  • How/why do infants and children have more joints than adults?
synovial joints
- Very complex

“synovial” joint because the joints are separated by a space (“synovial cavity”), where synovial fluid is retained

Synovial fluid rich in albumin (blood protein) and hyaluronic acid (a lubricant)

Synovial joints
synovial joints15
Synovial joints
  • Joint membrane:
    • Outer fibrous capsule (continuous with the periosteum)
    • Inner synovial membrane secretes the synovial fluid into the joint capsule
  • Each bone involved in the joint is covered by articular cartilage  2 mm thick

-The bones making up the joint are “held together” by ligaments

      • Help to locate the bones in the correct “place” so that their articular cartilage “rides” correctly
types of joints classification by shape
Ball & Socketjoints (hip and shoulder)

Hinge joints (ulna and femur…knee, fingers and toes)

Pivot joints (radius and ulna…forearm/elbow and the first 2 vertebrae of your spine)

Saddle joints (thumb, sternum/clavicle)

Condyloid joints (fingers)

Types of joints: classification by shape
types of joints classification by shape18
Ball & Socket joints

Hinge joints (ulna and femur…knee, fingers and toes)

1 range of movement (flip-phone)

Types of joints: classification by shape
types of joints classification by shape19
Ball & Socket

Hinge joints

Pivot joints (radius and ulna…forearm/elbow and the first 2 vertebrae of your spine)

When 1 bone spins on another, when you say no, or turn a door knob)

Types of joints: classification by shape
types of joints classification by shape20
Ball & Socketjoints

Hinge joints

Pivot joints

Saddle joints (thumb, sternum/clavicle)

2 ranges of motion (hold something tight = sagittal plane, spread hand = frontal plane)

Condyloid joints (fingers)

2 ranges of motion: make a fist = sagittal plane, spread fingers = frontal plane

Types of joints: classification by shape
types of joints classification by shape21
Ball & Socketjoints

Hinge joints

Pivot joints

Saddle joints

Condyloid joints

Gliding joints

Bone surface almost flat

Bones slide along each other

Ex: carpal bone, patella-femur

Types of joints: classification by shape
complex joints
Complex joints

Many joints have characteristics of multiple joint types

  • Elbow is both a hinge joint (where ulna and humerus meet), as well as a pivot joint (where radius and ulna meet)
  • Knee is similar to the elbow joint, without as much flexibility (much stronger and limited)
  • Temporo-mandibular joint has both lateral and dorsal/ventral movement
complex synovial joints
In a few joints (jaw = temporo-mandibular), (sternum/collarbone =sterno-clavicular), (ankle = distal tibia-fibula), there is an articular disc

In your knee, this is called a meniscus

for guidance of the knee bones

for shock absorption

Complex synovial joints
accessories to synovial joints
Other structures present in synovial joints:

Tendons: collagen-based connective tissue that hold muscle to bone

Ligaments: collagen-based connective tissue that hold bone to bone

Bursa: fibrous “sac” that holds synovial fluid

Wraps around muscles  prevent rubbing

“bursitis” = inflammation of the bursa

“tendon sheath”

Accessories to synovial joints
movements of various joints
Movements of various joints
  • Your shoulder (ball and socket) is a good example of a joint that is “multiarticulate”
  • The ball and socket allows for:
  • Abduction of the arm (flap your arms like a bird, jumping jacks)
  • Flexion of the arm (extending to shake a hand or open a door)
  • Rotation of the arm (sweeping your desk)
movements of various joints27
Movements of various joints

Abduction = raising arms above head (moving away from the anatomical position in the FRONTAL PLANE)

Adduction = returning arms to side (returning to anatomical position in the FRONTAL PLANE)

The terms abduction and adduction refer to the ACTION, NOT THE APPENDAGE that you are moving (you can also abduct and adduct your legs at the hip joint).

movements of various joints28
Movements of various joints

Elevation = lifting body part in the FRONTAL PLANE (moving away from the anatomical position)

In this case, the model is raising their shoulders in the frontal or coronal plane

Depression = returning to anatomical position from elevation

These terms refer to movement FROM the anatomical position, as well as back TO the anatomical position. These movement terms also refer to the PLANE of movement. In this case, we are dealing with the FRONTAL or CORONAL plane.

movements of various joints29
Movements of various joints

Protraction = moving body part forward (anterior movement) in a transverse or horizontal direction

Retraction= posterior movement (“pushing out” his chest…he’s really pulling back his shoulders”)

With these terms, there is reference to direction and plane of movement, however, this DOES NOT refer to the movement FROM or TO the anatomical position.

movements of various joints30
Movements of various joints

Flexion = decreasing joint angle

In this case, the models elbow is in flexion

Extension= increasing joint angle to “zero position” (where it would “naturally rest)

Hyperextension= moving beyond the zero position

Note that this movement DOES NOT refer to the plane of a joint, is only refers to the ANGLE of the joint.

movements of various joints31
Movements of various joints

Hyperextension= moving beyond the zero position

movements of various joints32
Movements of various joints

Circumduction = 1 end of the joint remains stationary, the other end makes a CIRCLE.

Rotation = turning a joint longitudinally

on 1 bone of the joint

movements of various joints33
Movements of various joints

Supination =ONLY for FOREARM, when you turn your forearm so that the palms face forward or ventral (anatomical position)

Pronation= ONLY for the forearm, when you turn your forearm so that the palm faces posterior or dorsal

movements of hand joints
Movements of hand joints

Radial flexion= tilting the hand towards the thumb (towards the radius)

Ulnar flexion= tilting hand towards the pinky finger (towards the ulna)

Abductionof theFINGERSis when you spread your fingers apart

In terms of yourfingers:

Flexion= curling fingers (like a fist)

Extension= pointing your fingers

movements of hand joints35
Movements of hand joints

Your THUMB is turned 90 from the rest of your fingers, so the previous “terms” for finger movement are DIFFERENT for your thumb

Abduction= bring your thumb to your index finger (the “OK” sign)

Opposition= touch pinky with thumb

Reposition= return to “zero” from the opposition position

In terms of yourTHUMB:

Flexion= bending towards the palm of your hand

Extension= pointing thumb up (hitch-hiking)

Hyperextension= when you make a 90 angle between your thumb and index finger (straight up hitch hiker thumb)

movements of foot ankle joints
Movements of foot/ankle joints

In terms ofANKLEmovements

Dorsiflection= lift toes up (standing on your heels)

Zero position= feet flat on the ground, standing up

Plantar flexion= pointing toes down (standing on your toes)

In terms of yourFEET:

Your ankle can “roll” just like your wrist can “wave”

Inversion= turning the plantar surface towards the median (standing on the outside of your feet)

Eversion= turning the plantar surface laterally (standing on the arches of your feet)

complex joint humero scapular joint shoulder
The scapula is connected to the thorax only by the clavicle (collar bone)

Connection at the acromion process (look for a sharp hook)

The joint between the clavicle and acromion = acromial-clavicular joint

Complex joint: humero-scapular joint (shoulder)
humero scapular joint
Humero-scapular joint

Posterior view

Anterior view

Note how the ligaments and tendons wrap around the joint to hold the head of the humerus into the glenoid cavity. Also note how shallow the “socket” on the scapula is; an effort to increase mobility of this joint

Loose ball and socket joint.

More mobility

Muscles and ligaments stabilize the joint

complex joint elbow joint
Actually 2 joints in 1 area

Humero-ulnar joint

Humero-radial joint

Both enclosed by 1 single synovial joint capsule

3rd joint in the elbow: radio-ulnar joint

head of the radius - radial notch in the ulnus

important because it permits the forearm rotation (supine/prone) rotation

Your tibia/fibula (shins) cannot rotate as well

Complex joint: Elbow joint
features of the hand and wrist
Features of the hand and wrist

Also remember that your hand and wrist comprise a number of different joint types: saddle, gliding and condyloid. Together, these joints give your hands and fingers a great deal of and mobility

rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis

- An autoimmune disease


- Bone degeneration due to old age

Accumulation of synovial fluid in the bursa – due to chronic or acute irritation

An extreme case!

sprain and strain
Sprain: ligament tear

Strain: Tendon or muscle tear

Sprain and Strain