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Articulations. Articulation = joint = point of contact between bones. (Joints). Joint Classification. Synarthroses Fibrous Joints. Amphiarthoses Cartilaginous. Diarthroses Synovial. Most numerous Most complex Structures joint capsule

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articulations

Articulations

Articulation = joint = point of contact between bones

(Joints)

diarthroses synovial
DiarthrosesSynovial
  • Most numerous
  • Most complex
  • Structures
    • joint capsule
      • sleevelike encasing around bone ends to bind them together
    • synovial membrane
      • membrane lining capsule to secrete synovial fluid
    • bursae
      • cushions joints and helps tendons move
    • joint cavity
      • small space between bones
    • articular cartilage
      • hyaline cartilage covering bone ends
    • menisci
      • pads of fibrocartilage between bones
    • Ligaments
      • strong, dense, white fibrous tissue that hold bones firmly together

bursae

types of joints
Types of Joints

ellipsoidal

uniaxial joints permits movement around one axis and one plane
allows only flexion and extension

examples – elbow, knee

knee joint

largest joint, most complex, most frequently injured

Uniaxial Joints permits movement around one axis and one plane
  • projection of one bone articulating with a ring/notch of another bone
    • examples - between vertebrate
biaxial joints permits movement around two perpendicular axes and planes
Biaxial Jointspermits movement around two perpendicular axes and planes
  • Example
    • thumb
      • only saddle joint in the body
  • condyle fits into an elliptical socket
  • Example
    • between radius and carpals

ellipsoidal

multiaxial joints permits movement around three or more axes and planes
Multiaxial Joints permits movement around three or more axes and planes
  • most moveable joints
  • ball shaped head fits into concave depression
  • example - shoulder, hip
    • humeroscapular joint
      • most mobile joint
    • sacroiliac joint
      • hip joint
  • relatively flat articulating surface that allows gliding movement
  • example
    • between carpals
    • between tarsals
    • between vertebrate
slide10

Multiaxial

Ball and socket

slide11

Multiaxial

Ball and socket

Multiaxial

Ball and socket

slide12

Herniated Discs

Multiaxial

Ball and socket

Multiaxial

Gliding

slide13

Multiaxial

Ball and socket

Uniaxial

Hinge

meniscus
Meniscus

Normal

Tear of medial meniscus

slide16

ROM(Range of Motion)

  • __________________
    • Used to determine extent of injury and progress of rehabilitation
    • measures range of motion (degree of angle)
slide17
____________ ROM
  • flexion – decreases angle, movement towards body
  • extension – increase angle, movement away from body
  • hyperextension – stretching or extending beyond anatomical position
  • plantar flexion – increase angle between top of foot and front of leg (point up/flex)
  • dorsiflexion – decrease angle between top of foot and front of leg (point down)
  • ABduction – move AWAY from medial plane
  • ADduction – move TOWARDS medial plane
slide18
____________ROM
  • rotation – pivoting a bone on its axis
  • circumduction – distal end of a body part moves in a circle
  • supination – hand palm side up
  • pronation – hand palm side down
special movements
Special Movements
  • inversion – turn foot inward
  • eversion – turn foot outward
  • protraction – move part forward
  • retraction – move part backward
  • elevation – move part up
  • depression – move part down
joint disorders
Joint Disorders
  • _________________(NIJD)
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Tramatic Injuries
      • Dislocation
      • Meniscus tear
      • Sprain
      • Ligament tear
      • Herniated disc
  • _________________(IJD)
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Gout
joint disorders1
Joint Disorders
  • Osteoarthritis
    • Most ____________ NIJD
    • Wear and tear deterioration
    • Atrophy of ____________ cartilage
    • Formation of new _______ at joint surface
    • Most common in weight-bearing joints
    • Stiffness, pain, limited movement
    • Treat symptoms with NSAIDS
joint disorders2
Joint Disorders
  • ________________
    • Articular surfaces not in proper contact
    • Torn vessels, nerves, ligaments, muscles
    • Pain and swelling
    • Treat with realignment (reduction)
joint disorders3
Joint Disorders
  • Meniscus Tear
    • One of most common athletic injuries
    • Swelling, pain, instability, limited motion
    • Treat with arthroscopic surgery
joint disorders4
Joint Disorders
  • ___________
    • Stretching of ligaments surrounding joint
    • Due to twisting motion
    • Hematoma, limited motion
    • Treatment: R.I.C.E.
degree of sprains
Degree of Sprains
  • ______ degree ankle sprain
    • Some stretching or perhaps tearing may have occurred
    • No loss of function
    • Mild pain, little bruising
    • Little or no swelling
    • Some joint stiffness or difficulty walking
  • ______ degree ankle sprain
    • Difficulty walking
    • Moderate to severe pain
    • Swelling and tenderness in the ankle joint
    • Bruising may start after 3 to 4 days
  • ______ degree ankle sprain
    • most serious
    • Total rupture of a ligament
    • Walking may not be possible
    • Severe pain initially and substantial swelling
    • May require surgery
slide26

Joint Disorders

  • Ligament Tears (___ degree Sprain)
      • Bruising, pain, swelling, instability
      • Physical therapy
      • Partial tear vs. complete tear
        • Partial Tear – boot/brace, crutches
        • Complete Tear - Surgery after most swelling subsides
surgery
____________________ surgery
  • 3-4 very small incisions ¼ in.
    • fiber-optic light source
    • video camera
    • terile saline solution is continuously pumped through the knee via a cannula
joint disorders5
Joint Disorders
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Chronic and systemic
    • Inflammation of ___________ membrane
    • ______________ destroyed, bone erosion
    • Progressive crippling and _____________
    • Pain, inflammation, decreased mobility, aching, stiffness
    • Treat with corticosteroid drugs and NSAIDS
joint disorders6
Joint Disorders
  • Gouty arthritis
    • Also referred to as just _________
    • Excessive _______ ________ in blood
    • Crystals get deposited in _____________fluid
    • Chronic inflammation and tissue damage
    • Swelling, tenderness
    • Pin in wrists, fingers, ankles, knees, elbows
    • Treat with Allopurinol (inhibits uric acid synthesis)
joint disorders7
Joint Disorders

NIJDC

Osteoarthritis

IJD

IJD

Gout

Rheumatoid arthritis